Saturday, March 12, 2005

Mirpurkhas Economic Profile




Chapter Title Page No.
District Map I District at Glance 1 - 3
Chapter-1 Geographical Characteristics 4 - 6 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Location 1.3 Topography-(Tract/Zone) 1.4 Climate 1.5 Administrative set up
Chapter-2 Demographic Characteristics 7 - 10
2.1 Population 1998 2.2 Settlement pattern (size) urban/rural. - Statistical Tables 9 - 10
Chapter-3 Agriculture 11 - 37
3.1 Land Utilization 12 3.2 Crop Position 13 3.2.1 Wheat 13 3.2.2 Cotton 14 3.2.3 Rice 14 3.2.4 Sugarcane 15 3.2.5 Minor Crops 15 3.3 Fertilizer 16 3.4 Improved Seed 17 3.5 Pesticides 18 3.6 Livestock 19 3.7 Veterinary Institution 21 3.8 Inland Fisheries 22 3.9 Forest 23 3.10 Food Storage 24 -- Statistical Tables 26 - 37

Chapter-3-A Village Electirication 38
Chapter-4 Manufacturing 39 - 44
4.1 Existing Manufacturing 4.2 Industrial Small Scale Units 4.3 District potentials. - Statistical Tables 42 - 44
Chapter-5 Road Net work (Normal/F.T.M) 45 - 51
5.1 Existing Situation 5.2 Road Standards 5.3 Analysis 5.4 Development Gaps - Statistical Tables 50 - 51
Chapter-6 Education 52 - 60
6.1 Primary Education 6.2 Secondary Education 6.3 High Secondary Education 6.3 College Education 6.4 Technical/Commercial/Vocational Education 6.5 Professional Education 6.6 Medical Education 6.7 Establishment of General University 6.8 Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education - Statistical Tables 58 - 60
Chapter-7 Health 61 - 77
7.1 Existing Position of Health alongwith development gap. - Statistical Tables 64 - 77
Chapter-8 Water Supply & Drainage/ 77 - 92 Sewerage
8.1 Urban Water Supply 8.2 Urban Drainage 8.3 Rural Water Supply 8.4 Rural Drainage 8.5 Facilities provided through Rural Development Department. 8.6 Policy Issues/Options. - Statistical Tables 86 - 92 DISTRICT AT GLANCEGENERAL INFORMATIONDISTRICT MIRPURKHAS
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------
Sub-Division Nos. Talukas " 2 Union Councils " 3 Market Committee " 22 Deh " 364 Villages/Settlements " 747 Metropolitan/Municipal Corp: " - Municipal Committees " 1 Town Committees " 6 2. AREA Sq. kms. 2,991
Population (Total) Nos. 8,99,947 Male " 4,67,654 Female " 4,32,293
Rural " 6,07,996 Male " 3,17,100 Female " 2,90,896
Urban " 2,91,951 Male " 1,50,554 Female " 1,41,397 Population Density Per 303
Area Hectare 50,142
Cotton " 1,374 Rice " 67,541 Wheat " 14,907 Sugarcane " 1,186 Jawar " 193 Barley " 1,178 Rape Seed & Mustered " 14,307 Gram " -
Cotton Bales 1,84,546 Rice M.Tons 2,826 Wheat " 1,47,541 Sugarcane " 9,10,603 Jawar " 621 Barley " 95 Rape Seed & Mustered " 815 Gram " -
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------
Sugar Factories Nos. - Cotton Ginning Factories " 1 Rice Mills " 5 Oil Mills " - Ice Factories " 2 Others " 2
Villages Electrified(200 & above) Nos. 585 Development Gap (200 & above) " 162
Mettled Road Kms. 933.95
Un-Mettled Road (Katcha) " 342.65
Primary Schools Nos. 1,592
a) Male " 1,310 b) Female " 282
Middle Schools " 49
a) Male " 25 b) Female " 24
High Schools " 58
a) Male " 40 b) Female " 18
Civil Hospital/Other Major Nos. 1 Hospitals
Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals " 2
Rural Health Centres " 5
Basic Health Units " 32
Dispensaries (Govt.) " 5

(2)S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------
Rural Water Supply Schemes Nos. 49 (Completed)
Rural W/S Coverage 1000+ " 49 Population Settlements
Development Gap* " 126
Rural Drainage Scheme (Completed) " 20
Rural Drainage (Coverage) 1000+ " 20
Development Gap (1000) Settlement " 157




The district Mirpurkhas is situated at the South-East corner of the province. It lies from 25-9' to 29-17' North latitude and 69-3' to 69-26' East longitude. It is bounded on the North by the district of Sanghar, in the East by the newly created district Umerkot bordering the Bermet/Marwar and Jaisalmir districts of India, on the West by the district of Hyderabad and in the West-South by the district Badin, in the south by the district Thar bordering the Rann of Kutch.
Recently, new three districts have been created from the District Tharparkar forming Mirpurkhas, Umerkot & Thar. In fact, the district Tharparkar had two distinct topographic features, one area popularly known as the Thar desert is stretched over 19,637 sq. in length and is made of Sandy Dunes while the other area called the Barrage area is irrigated, with hard soil and covers 8,532 Sq. The eastern Nara which is now largely abandoned forms the demarcation link between the two regions and their fusions are remarkably visible from the town of Umerkot.
Almost all the barrage (irrigated) area falls in the district Mirpurkhas which is conducive to Agriculture Cultivation and happen to be more densely populated with 108 persons per square km. Few industries which exist in the district mainly comprise of Cotton Ginning and Oil Mills mainly concentrated in the barrage area. There is no Engineering industry in whole of the district and the average per capita income is low as compared to other districts. Similarly, road and rail services are largely concentrated in the Barrage area, although even there, they are unevenly distributed. The Barrage zone itself does not have a river, but a natural inundation canal, locally called the Nara Dhoro (Eastern Nara Canal) flows through the district without entering the desert zone and through a network of channels provide water for drinking and irrigation purpose. 1.3 CLIMATE:
The district has extremes of climate. However, the climate differs considerably in barrage areas. In the irrigated western portion it is comparatively less hot in summer and less cold in winter as compared to the eastern desert area. The summer heat is considerably neutralized by constant blowing of the south western sea breezes. April, May and June are the hottest months during the day time, however, nights are cold and pleasant. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this period are 41 and 26 centigrade respectively. December, January and February are the coldest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this period are 28 centigrade and 9 centigrade respectively.
Rainfall varies from year to year. Most of the rain falls in the monsoon months between June and September. The winter rains are insignificant.
The mean maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation recorded is given below:-

______________________________________________________ Mean temperature ( c) precipitation Month Maximum Minimum (millimetres)
January 25.6 7.6 1.00 February 29.5 10.7 2.00 March 35.3 16.6 1.00 April 39.9 20.7 1.00 May 42.4 25.0 1.00 June 40.8 27.3 10.00 July 37.2 26.8 50.00 August 35.1 25.8 76.00 September 36.2 24.2 23.00 October 36.4 20.1 5.00 November 32.3 13.9 1.00 December 27.4 8.7 1.00 ANNUAL 34.8 18.9 172.00


The district of Mirpurkhas comprises of 3 talukas viz Mirpurkhas, Digri, and Kot Ghulam Muhammad and two sub divisions. The District has one Municipal Committee, 6 town committees, 22 union councils and 364 dehs. Besides, it has 3 market committees.
2.1 The Mirpurkhas District is spread over 2991, that is, 2.10% of the total geographical area of Sindh, but its share in total Population in 1998 accounted for 899947 souls or 3% of the provincial population. It increased by 54% during 1981-98 intercensal period a span of 17 years at an average annual growth rate of 2.59%. In accordance with the land area of Mirpurkhas district i.e. 2991 sq. kms. there is density of 303 persons per sq. km. as compared to 196 persons per sq. km. in 1981. Out of its total population 291951 persons or 32% are settled in urban areas and remaining 607996 persons or 68% are located in rural areas. The sex ratio (male per 100 females) is worked out at 108; this ratio is also constituted of 109 males in rural and 106 in urban areas respectively. Town-wise urban population is depicted in table No.I. According to 1998 population census, there are total 152404 households in Mirpurkhas district comprising of 899947 persons thus giving an average size of six persons per household. The taluka wise population of 1998 is depicted in table No.II.
2.2 There are 747 rural settlements having population 200-1000 of which 75 are categorized as settlements of population with 1000+ souls. By definition settlement is defined as "Place of human habitation from one isolated house to a big town or a city with certain identified location and name" on other hand the village as per definition of Board of Revenue Sindh, is defined as "Place of human habitation having atleast ten houses".
2.3 The village in population terms therefore could be defined as a place of human habitation having population of about 70-100 persons (7-10 household size) and above (but not more than 5000) with certain identified location and name. The Rural settlement pattern 200 and above according to survey conducted by Sindh Bureau of Statistics during 1995 are depicted below:
TABLE "A"-----------------------------------------------------------------Taluka Settlement having Population 200-499 500-599 1000+ Total-----------------------------------------------------------------Mirpurkhas 185 70 39 294Digri 196 52 17 265Kot Ghulam Muhammad 124 45 19 188-----------------------------------------------------------------Total: 505 167 75 747-----------------------------------------------------------------
Source:- Sindh Bureau of Statistics.
2.4 The above table reveals that number of settlements having 200-499 constitute 68% of the total settlements of 200-1000. The rural settlements having population of 200+ may be considered as a cut off point and need special attention by providing basic socio-economic facility School/Electricity. The rural settlements less than 500 and more than 200 (200-499) clearly qualify for a mosque school and provision of electricity. The rural settlements with population less than 1000 (500-999) may be considered for provision of education, electricity/pucca road facility and the rural settlements with population 1000 and above should be considered for all possible civic amenities to convert them into sub urban localities and to attract surrounding scattered hamlets to voluntary migration. CHAPTER 3
Pakistan's economy has undergone considerable diversification over the year yet the agriculture sector still constitutes its back-bone. With its present contribution to GDP at 24.87 percent, Agriculture accounts for half of the total employed labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings while it serves as the base sector for the country's major industries like textiles and sugar.
The economic development of Sindh is largely dependent on the progress and growth of Agriculture sector. Sindh province contributes significantly towards over all national agriculture with 26% of the cultivated area, 17% of the cropped area and 16% of the irrigated area, 19% of the total forest area, 43% of the total production of rice, 25% of cotton, 14% wheat, 30% sugar cane, 22% other food grains, 59% of marine fish, 60% of inland fish and 28% of the live stock production originates in Sindh. Lower productivity levels per hectare continue to be problem No. 1 of crop production. Over the last ten years period, most insignificant increases are noticeable in yield of major crops over several years in view of efforts undertaken to eradicate water-logging and Salinity, provision of new seed varieties, increased use of fertilizer, pesticides, provision of agriculture extension services and on-farm water management practice and close co-ordination among farmers and agricultural field staff. Achievements of self sufficiency in major crop production must, therefore, address to the key issue bottlenecks. The enhancement of yields in the shortest possible time needs to be taken by reviewing existing programme by involving farming community in co-operative manners reducing reliance on extension staff.
The pattern of land use in a region determines crop production. Soil & climate play an important role in the management of cropping pattern of a region. Crop area used for food and cash crops can be taken as an index of the type of land system and the economic use for these crops. Land use data for latest five years are given in table No.1. The reported area in Mirpurkhas remained unchanged since in 1993-94 and recorded at 299.1 thousand hectares in 1997-98. However, not all of this area is cultivable. 32.1% was reported as "uncultivable" though its share was 31.0% in 1993-94.
The share of cultivated area (in the area reported) decreased from 69.0% in 1993-94 to about 67.9% in 1997-98. It, however, is still smaller as compared to over all Sindh. From the data given in table No.1, the cropping intensities did not changed significantly since many years, therefore, an acre of land in Mirpurkhas district is not cropped fully once in a year. However, the cropped area increased from 110.9 thousand hectares in 1993-94 to 117.0 thousand hectares in 1997-98. whereas the cropping intensity is recorded at 57.6% reflecting higher cropping intensities, as compared to Sindh.
The cropped area increased by about 5.5%, on the contrary the cultivated area also slightly decreased by 1.7% during the period of five years. A small part of the area about 0.07% is being used for grazing or forest and remaining land is lying unused due to unfavourable condition or lack of irrigation water.
It is noted that the pressure of total rural population on cultivated area has increased considerably since last many years. The ratio of cultivated area per person decreased from 0.30 in 1993-94 to 0.22 in 1997-98.
There are two main crop seasons; "Kharif" and "Rabi" in Mirpurkhas District. The Kharif season starts from April-May and ends in October-November while the Rabi starts from November-December and ends in April-May. However due to regional variation in temperature, several factors i.e varieties, availability of water, soil texture, etc. determine the crop pattern, sowing and harvesting time. The Crops are further categorized into major and minor crops. Wheat, Cotton, Rice, Sugar-cane are the major crops of the district; Sunflower, Onion, Jowar, Rapeseed & Mustard, Maize and Barley fall in the category of minor crops.
3.2.1 WHEAT.
Wheat is also a staple food crop of the people of Mirpurkhas district. Thus it occupies the majority of cultivated land under wheat. Its share in total cropped area was recorded at 57.7%. The area and production of wheat for the year 1997-98 were estimated at 67.5 thousand hectares and 147.5 thousand tonnes respectively. The yield, however, was recorded at 2184 kgs.
The area under wheat significantly declined by 9.9% during the year 1994-95. It further declined by 1.2% in the next year. The production situation, however, remained more or less satisfactorily over the last five years and it grew at the rate of 1.0%. (Table No.2).
3.2.2 COTTON:
Cotton is not only an export earning crop but it also provides raw material to local textile industries in Mirpurkhas as well as Sindh. Its share in production stands at 7.9% in Sindh. The latest estimates of area and production for the year 1997-98 for Mirpurkhas district were recorded at 50.1 thousand hectares and 184.5 thousand bales representing slight decrease in area by 0.6% and decrease in production by 3.6% over the previous year. Moreover, the yield per hectare decreased by 2.9% from 645 kgs. per hectare in 1996-97 to 626 kgs. per hectare in 1997-98 as the crop suffered heavily on account of leaf curl virus in the cotton growing areas of the district. (Table No.2)
3.2.3 RICE:
Rice is an important food as well as highly valued cash crop that earns substantial foreign exchange for the country. Despite the relative price having favoured the high yielding varieties, farmers traditionally grow IRRI, and other varieties in district Mirpurkhas. (Table No.2)
The area under rice significantly decreased by 26.6% from 1871 hectares in 1996-97 to 1374 hectares in 1997-98. Besides, the production of rice also went down significantly by 32.0% from 4154 tonnes to 2826 tonnes. Similarly yield per hectare also decreased by 7.3% from 2220 kgs. per hectare to 2057 kgs. per hectare.(Table No.2)
Sugar production in the Sindh province depends mostly on sugarcane crop. Keeping in view its importance, great deal of attention has been paid to increase both the area and production of sugarcane. It was reported that during the year 1997-98 the sugarcane area and production upsurged by 2.6% & 18.4% respectively.(Table No.2)
Similarly, the yield per hectare increased by 15.3% from 53.0 metric tonnes per hectare in 1996-97 to 61.1 metric tonnes per hectare in 1997-98. The increase was mainly due to the attractive incentives to the farmers provided by the sugar mill management and also due to an increase in support price and favourable climatic conditions prevailing in the sugarcane growing areas of the district. (Table No.2)
The information available in table No.3 depicts that Sunflower, Onion, Jowar, Rapeseed & Mustard, Maize and Barely were the minor crops, which significantly contributed the share of 2.9%, 2.6%, 1.0%, 1.0%, 0.7% and 0.2% in the total cropped area of the district Mirpurkhas respectively during the year 1997-98.

Fertilizer is one of the major input which can enhance the crop production. The timely application and use of correct doze is an essential factor for increasing crop yields. Its contribution to increased crop production is about 50%.
Mostly, the soils of Mirpurkhas district are fertile but the are deficit in nitrogenous and phosphatic nutrients. Nitrogen is very essential for accelerating plant vigour producing large number of flowers, number of sound seeds per capsule and their proper size. It increases protein content of the seed as well. Phosphorous contributes in photosynthetic activities of plants, formation of seed, fibre and proper development of root system.
The recommended dozes of nitrogenous, phosphatic & potassium fertilizer varies from crop to crop. Other factors like fertility of soil, topography, availability of water, use of quality seed, proper preparation of land etc. also contribute towards crop production.
The information available in table No.4 on off-take of fertilizer for the period from 1993-94 to 1997-98 depicts that the use of fertilizer declined at the rate of 4.4% per annum in Mirpurkhas district. The total off-take of fertilizer (N+P+K) in the district in both the Kharif and Rabi seasons of 1997-98 was 52.2 thousand nutrients tonnes which was 8.5% higher than the corresponding period of the last year. However, the figures show a drastic decline of 39.1% in off-take of fertilizer during the year 1995-96 as compared to last year where it was 64.9 thousand M.tonnes.
It is estimated that off-take of fertilizer in Mirpurkhas district was 8.7% of the total off-take in Sindh.
Quality of seed is a basic requirement for increasing the production and productivity of the crop. It is a low cost input but has the potential to increase crop yield on an average by 20% as compared to non-certified seeds.
It is reported that sale of certified seeds has been declining since many years. The figures indicate in table No.5 that the sale of wheat, paddy and cotton certified seeds drastically decreased by 57.4%, 76.9% and 3.1% respectively over the period of lat five years. The sale of wheat certified seed was recorded at 5.2 thousand kg. mds. at the cost of Rs.2381 thousand during the year 1997-98. It is estimated that 2.1 thousand hectares of wheat crop were cultivated under certified seed which was only 17.9% of the total cropped area under wheat in Mirpurkhas district.
The distribution of improved paddy seed was estimated at 200 kg. mds. with a total outlays of Rs.75.8 thousand during the year 1997-98. Its share to the total cropped area under paddy in Mirpurkhas remained very negligible at 1.4%. Similarly, the sale of cotton certified seed is reported at 2.2 thousand kgs. maunds with estimated cost of Rs.2903 thousand in the year 1997-98 which was 57.7% higher than the previous year. Likewise its share in the total cropped area was 2.9%.
The most farmers use their own farm seed. Vast majority have little access for quality control as the public agencies and market agencies do not provide more than 3 to 17 percent of good and certified seed for these crops. The less use of improved seed is one of the most serious factor for obtaining low yields.
3.5 Pesticides.
Pesticides play major role in protecting crops from the attack of pest and disease. It is estimated that crop losses during the growth season and after harvesting caused by insect & pests are considerably high to the extent of 25%. Many of these losses are avoidable, if proper preventive and curative measures are taken. Plant protection measures, dependent mainly on pesticides, are grossly inadequate even for the four leading crops. The most preferred use of plant protection measures on crops are now the ground sprays both as preventive and curative measures.
Increase in cropping intensities and cultivation pattern help in the development of permanent flora for retaining the sufficient quantity of seed in soil. The application of tillage operation including hand labour for control of weeds are not traditionally practised due to shortage of labour and its high costs. Weedicides, are not mostly used; however, only insignificant progressive farmers are applying weedicides in wheat crop.
It is reported in table No.6 that the area of 1886 hectares under wheat crops was treated with 3.9 metric tonnes weedicide for the control of weeds which covered only 2.8% of the total area under wheat in Mirpurkhas district in 1997-98. (Table No.6).
The latest information available on use of pesticides indicates that the plant protection measures were carried out over an area of 1167 hectares under rice crop which utilized the pesticide of 1.3 metric tonnes. The coverage was only 85.0% of the total area cultivated under rice in district Mirpurkhas.
Cotton crop is attacked by large number of insects & pests from sowing to picking stages. In Mirpurkhas district, 111.3 thousand hectares under cotton were treated for the control of insect pests. The coverage was 221.8% of the total area under cotton which consumed 338.7 metric tonnes of pesticides.
Similarly, Sugar Cane crop with an area of 10.9 thousand hectares was protected from the attack of insect pests. The 12.1 metric tonnes pesticides were used with a coverage of 73.2% of the total area under sugar cane in Mirpurkhas district.
3.6 Live Stock:
Live Stock is one of the major sub-sector of Agriculture and back bone of our economy. It contributes roughly one third in the total share of Agriculture GDP. Its main by-products including hides and skins have substantial potential as semi-finished products. A substantial growth on Live Stock products such as milk, meat, beef, mutton, poultry and eggs have been notices since many years.
It has been estimated that over three - fourths of the farm power comes from animals and they are used for most of the farm operations. Bullocks provide the draft power on farm and in transport around the villages.
Most farmers traditionally keep a few heads of live stock ranging from bullocks for draft to buffaloes or cattle for milk and poultry for eggs & meat. There is a need for increasing the heads of live stock to supplement income by selling products. Production for market even at the expense of consumption at home has become quite common in many areas of Sindh. There are pockets of organised live stock farming such as cattle farms (or colonies) and poultry farms, located mainly in the urban areas. Most other units are of small size and not well kept.
As per live stock census 1996, the population of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in Mirpurkhas district were recorded at 176258, 218655, 88421 and 527963 respectively. The population of live stock grew by 2.1% cattle, 3.5% buffaloes, 3.4% sheep and 5.9% goats over the last live stock census enumerated in 1986.(Table No.7)
Meat, hair, hides, skins and wool are the other major products of live stock. Beef is the most important source of meat. But most of this beef is produced from discarded old bullocks, milch cattle and buffaloes, and buffalo calves. Mutton comes next in the market place, and it is provided by a variety of goats and sheep.
During the year 1997-98 it was reported that 83762 animals were slaughtered in the Mirpurkhas district. Out of the total slaughtered animals, 8053 cattle, 10336 buffaloes, 11455 sheep and 53918 goats were slaughtered. It was estimated that 4.6% cattle, 4.7% buffaloes, 13.0% sheep and 10.2% goats were slaughtered out of the total live stock population in 1997-98. It was observed that slaughtering of animals was increased by cattle 35.9%, buffaloes 52.1%, sheep 23.3% and goats 79.8% over the period of five years.( Table No.8)
In order to meet the requirements of meat and milk, live stock farming seems to be necessary in joint venture of public/private sector or helping private sector in importing the livestock for establishing live stock farms through loans on easy terms & conditions. The Mirpurkhas district posses vast potential for establishing livestock farming in the district.
3.7 Veterinary Institution.
The under nourishment, disease and internal parasites, act as a serious constraint on animal production. The animal have to be guarded against ill health, and preventive/curative measures are required to be taken regularly. The veterinary hospitals, dispensaries and centres provide preventive and curative services for disease control for live stock.
Table No.9 depicts that in Mirpurkhas district one veterinary hospital, 8 dispensaries and 39 veterinary centres were functioning during the year 1997-98. In all, 48 veterinary institutions were available to provide health coverage and treatment facilities to the entire livestock of the district. Total number of 866 veterinary Institutions were established in the Province of Sindh which translated into the health care ratio of one veterinary Institution for 2628 live stock. It is worked out that Mirpurkhas district had 5.5% of the total veterinary Institutions in Sindh. (Table No.9)
Institution Sindh Mirpurkhas %age Share Hospital 64 1 1.6% Dispensaries 115 8 7.0% Centres 687 39 5.7% Total 866 48 5.5%
The establishment of veterinary hospitals/centres at district, tehsil and taluka level has hardly contributed towards live stock disease control. Though expansion of live stock dispensaries and centres in the rural area has partially been successful in disease control, there is a dire need for diversification of veterinary health institutions from cities to rural areas.
The existing position indicates that 1,14,593 animals were treated, and 230748 animals were vaccinated for the control of various diseases in veterinary institutions thereby representing 11.3% of curative and 22.8% of preventive coverage over the total livestock population in Mirpurkhas district.
3.8 Inland Fisheries:
For Inland fishing, main economic activity is practised in rivers, lacks and ponds, etc. in Sindh province. Fish not only supplements protein deficiency of food but also earns foreign exchange for the country. Fisheries contributes to both the national income and export earnings.
Inland fish production has been increasing over the years. In Mirpurkhas district, the inland fish production registered an increase of 50.0% to 12 m.tonnes in 1997 over the preceding year. It is reported that Mirpurkhas district contributes very negligible share of 0.01% on the total 91903 m.tonnes inland fish production of Sindh. It is further, reported that only 18 fishermen were engaged full time in the fisheries sector whereas 7 fishermen contributed their services for part time during the year 1997. Total number of boats used for the catchment of fish were 6. All these boats were row type.(Table No.10)
Per capita consumption of inland fish in the province of Sindh is very low i.e. 3.1 kg only. Keeping in view of the high rate of population growth, production from land resources will not be able to keep up with the population increase. Protein deficiency could become serious problem in near future. In order to solve this, fish production needs proper attention to exploit the abundant resources to meet the protein needs of a growing population.
3.9 Forest:
Forests are not only necessary for habitation of livestock population but also instrumental in improving environmental quality and dependable source for meeting domestic energy requirements of fuel wood. Besides it helps in conservation of soils, improve environment by controlling pollution, cause rainfall and climatic changes supplement source of energy and stabilize gas and oil prices. The forestry programme in Sindh envisages management of forest on commercial basis in the Riverine forests, irrigation plantation forests, mangrove forests, development of Social Forestry, Agriculture, Coconut and Range lands.
Total forest area in Sindh is 1161 thousand hectares or 8.3% of the Sindh province area which is far below the desired ratio of 20 to 30 percent considered necessary for balanced ecology. The per capita forest area being 0.039 hectare in Sindh province or 0.032 hectares in the country was also quite low as compound to the world average of about 1.0 hectare.
In Mirpurkhas District, the forest area is spread over 1.2 thousand hectares which is 0.1% of the total area under forest in Sindh in the year 1997-98. Mirpurkhas district produced forest output at the value of Rs.37.2 thousand which contributes about 0.1% of the total value of forest in Sindh in 1997-98.(Table No.11)
In order to meet the standard ratio of 20-30% land as forest there is a need to bring more area of 58.6 to 88.5 thousand hectares under forest whereas in fact there is a substantial potential of growing agro-forest in Mirpurkhas .
Progress in increasing forest area has been limited due to financial and social constraints. The only need to increase the forest wealth in the province of Sindh as well as in country is to extensively grow trees on farm lands. In order to involve farming community in tree growing activity, social forestry programmes have been launched through out in the country with attractive incentives in the form of subsidized supply of planting stock, partial payment of planting cost, free protection of planted areas for a limited period of time and fair return to the farmers. The tree plantation on katcha/pucca road/canal path and in Government offices, health/education institution shall continue to be encouraged.
3.10 Food Storage:
Maintenance of food grain reserves is necessary to meet the off season requirements and to stabilize the prices. To achieve this end, storage facilities are required by the producers as well as by marketers, processors and the government. The farmer needs storage in order to sell when prices are favourable and reduce seasonal fluctuation in prices. The government requires stocks to carry out the country through bad years. Government role as the distributary agency of essential items necessitates enlargement of storage facilities.
The main thrust of government storage policy is to make available proper storage facilities, bring improvement in grain handling system & reduce grain losses to ensure the supply of adequate and good quality of food grains to the consumers. Food storage in public sector were provided for wheat, rice & cotton.
As a result of significant increase in domestic production and future needs of storage for important agricultural commodities and inputs, the demand for increase in storage capacity has become acute.
As per information provided in table No.12 the storage capacity of 746120 metric tonnes was available with government of Sindh. Of these, 95% godowns capacity was owned by food department. Additionally, 0.4% H.type storage accommodation was constructed through annual development programme while 4.6% storage facility was provided at an open plinth. Mirpurkhas district had H.type storage accommodation with capacity of 34300 metric tonnes. In addition district had the Bins type storage facility of 20160 metric tonnes. CHAPTER 3-A
Electricity is essential for urban/rural development in all sectors of economy and in all walks of life. Provision of electricity to rural people is, in other words, a source of happiness and prosperity to rural masses. Generally, electricity in rural areas is provided in rural settlement with population of 200 and above. WAPDA is the sole authority to electrify villages under different programmes.
As per population census of 1998, in district Mirpurkhas, there were 947 rural settlements with population 200 and above. WAPDA has so far electrified 585 villages. There are still 162 villages which need to be electrified.
4.1 The manufacturing establishments in district Mirpurkhas (as shown in table No.4.1) were reported as 10 units during Census of Manufacturing Industries (CMI), 1997-98. By comparing with the previous census that took place in 1990-91, under which 9 units were reported, it shows that one more unit have been increased. The leading order of the manufacturing groups during 1997-98 is given below:
S.No. Group No.of Units functioning---- ----- -----------
i. Cotton Ginning 5ii. Engineering 2iii. Oil Mills 2iv. Sugar Mill 1 ----------- 10 ------------
4.2 The detailed position/location of above mentioned Cotton Ginning Engineering Units, Oil mills and Sugar Mill (Location wise) is given as follows:
TALUKA Mirpurkhas.
4.3 In taluka, there are 8 establishments reported during the census of manufacturing industries (CMI) 1997-98 against the total number of 10 units for the whole district.

TALUKA Kot Ghulam Muhammad.
4.4 In this taluka, there are 2 industrial units which include 1 Cotton and one Sugar Mill as reported during the last census.
4.5 In the rest of District Mirpurkhas, no units were reported during the last census.
4.6 There is one Sugar Mill in Mirpurkhas district located in Mirpurkhas District Headquarter. A limited area of 14907 hectares was brought under Sugar cane cultivation. The field production of 910603 tonnes at 58.8 tonnes yield per hectares happens to be one higher side in terms of intensity. The Sugar Cane requirement of the mill are therefore being fulfilled by procuring Sugar cane within the district itself.
4.7 One Industrial Estate is established under Sindh Small Industries Corporation in Mirpurkhas district which is located in District Headquarter Mirpurkhas and Rohri. There are 8 small Industrial Units functioning as self-employment schemes and 132 units are functioning under small Industrial Estates (detail is given in table-4.2).
4.8 The details of Industrial groups are as under:
a) Under self Employment Schemes: i. Steel Engineering 1 ii. Vegetable Ghee 1 iii. Ice Factories 2 iv. Rice Mills 2 v. Others 2 ------- 8 -------
b) Under Small Industrial Estates:
i. Steel Engineering 1 ii. Cotton textile 1 iii. Building Material 7 M.P.G.(R.C.C. Pipe) iv. Others 2
--------- 11 ---------


5.1 Road network is considered as a vehicle for economic development and social change. Besides it is used as an Indicator for computing the stage of economic development. Efficient road network not only develops a quick and efficient transportation system but also opens up new area hitherto remained closed. It brings about social integration among rural and urban sectors and greatly assist in accessibility to basic needs i.e. schools, hospitals, etc. It brings rural areas in constant touch with urban segment of society and creates better understanding necessary for social change and political awareness.
5.2 Mirpurkhas district covers an area of 2,991 square kilometres yet it has only 933.95 kms. of metalled roads which are grossly inadequate for the area and population.
5.3 A Provincial Highway connects Hyderabad with Mirpurkhas via Sultanabad, Tando Allahyar and Tando Jam.
5.4 The district headquarter of Mirpurkhas is linked with its taluka Headquarters of Digri and Kot Ghulam Muhammad through metalled roads.
5.5 Other important road links in Mirpurkhas district are given as under:-
i. Road from Mirpurkhas to Umer Kot via Jamrao, Akri, Sufi Fakir and Mori.
ii. Road from Mirpurkhas to Badin via Mirwah Gorchani Digri and Tando Bago.
iii. Road from Mirpurkhas to Mithi via Digri, Tando Jan Muhammad, Jhudo and Nau Kot.
iv. Road from Mirpurkhas to Sanghar via "Kahu Jo Daro" and Sindhri.
v. Road from Jhiluri to Kot Ghulam Muhammad.
vi. Road Kot Ghulam Muhammad to Mirwah Gorchani.
5.6 The over all position (by type of roads) is presented as follows:- ABSTRACT OF ROAD MILEAGE (K.M.) OF DISTRICT MIRPURKHAS AS ON 30-06-1998
S.NO. ITEMS METALLED KATCHA TOTAL ROAD IN ROAD IN LENGTH KM. KM. KM.---- ------- -------- ------- ------
i. Provincial Roads 355.46 -- 355.46ii. Rural Roads 160.1 38.97 199.07iii. Farm to Market Road 418.39 303.68 722.07 --------------------------------- Grand Total: 933.95 342.65 1276.60 ---------------------------------
5.7 Details of above roads (taluka-wise) are given in table
5.8 Among the means of transportation buses, motor cars, jeeps, vans, heavy trucks, mini trucks, bullock carts, camel carts and donkey carts are used. Most of the commercial goods are transported by loading trucks, suzuki pickups, mini trucks and railways.
5.9 The town of Mirpurkhas serves as a Railway junction for both meter and broad gauge lines. The meter gauge which covers most of the area through Railways starts from Mirpurkhas (travelling approximately 194 Kms. in one direction) on which the important stations are Mirpurkhas, Jamrao, Kot Ghulam Muhammad, Kachelo Farm, Digri, Tando Jan Muhammad, Jhundo, Naokot, Talhi, Kunri, Khunjeshi, Samaro Road and Pithoro. The second meter gauge railway line starts from Mirpurkhas and connects Khan and Nazirabad crossing over to Nawabshah district. The third line goes to Khokhrapar which is the border town of Pakistan. It connects Jamrao, Shadi Pali, Plithoro, Hiral, Dhoronaro, Hirasar, Naya Chore, Parchar Ji Verhi, Jalu Chaunro and Khokhrapar, where it has been closed after the last Indo-Pakistan war. Across the border the same line goes to Bar Mer. (India) connecting Munabau Gadro road Ramsar and Jodhpur.
5.10 For identifying the development gaps there are certain standards about adequacy of roads which are as under:-
i) 0.50 km. of Pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographic area.
ii) Road density based on cultivable area. (2. Km. per 1 Sq. Km.).
iii) Road density based on cropped area.(1. Km. per 1 Sq. Km.).
iv) Road network connecting settlements of 1000+ and above 500+ population.
v) Road length per 10,000 population.
vi) Movement of persons goods and services.
5.11 The available international standard related to agriculture postulates that there should be atleast 2 km. of road for every of cultivable area. Modification of this standard appears necessary from two angles: Firstly, this standard includes katcha roads as well whereas we would like to evolve a standard in terms of metalled road only. Secondly, the standard is related to cultivable area which is invariably greater than cropped area. The cropped area standard of 1 km. of metalled road per of cropped area is also misleading. As in irrigated area, it must be much higher than in deserted/hilltorian areas. However, the settlements located in unirrigated zone also require special attention and connecting of 1000+ & 500+ villages appears appealing except some settlements located in unproductive zones (desert, hill tracts) the settlements lying therein with population 1000+ should at least be connected.
5.12 Under the population standard, urban settlements with large population would get more roads. However, the data of movement of persons, goods and services is not easily available.
5.13 Under these circumstances, the standard based on geographical area is most suited i.e. (0.5 km. of pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographical area).
5.14 Super imposing the chosen/agreed standard of 0.5 km. of metalled Road for one sq. km. of geographical area, we need a total of 1495.5 kms. of metalled road. With the existing road length pitched at 933.95 kms. additional road length of 561.55 km. as per (development gap) is required to be constructed to meet the required standard in District Mirpurkhas. Details are given at Table No.2.
5.15 A simple taluka wise analysis of the road situation in the district is given in Table No.2. The table shows pucca road densities in terms of K.M. per of geographical area wherein it is evident that Kot Ghulam Muhammad taluka is by far the most back ward taluka in so far as pucca road facility is concerned. The pucca road density for this taluka works out as 0.24 K.M per of geographical area as compared to the respective figures of 0.031 K.M for the district.
5.16 According to High ways Department's road statistics Sindh Province had a total of 20781.45 Km of pucca road upto June 1998 out of this, 933.95 kms. (4.49%) were in Mirpurkhas District which compares well with its population share of 3.00%. Comparative position of road length and densities in the geographical areas of various districts may be seen in Table No.3.
The Majority of Schools in the District belonging to Government are functioning under the supervision of District Education Officer (Male/Female). Education is basic right of the people, therefore Primary Education for Children male/Female is mandatory and it is provided free of cost in the province of Sindh. The formal Educational structure in Sindh is divided into four main streams, the first level known as primary refers to Grade I-V for age of school going population 5-9 years, 2nd stage includes middle secondary, elementary and higher secondary. The third stream is called college education which consists of higher education. After completion of the college education, a candidate is awarded Bachelor degree in Arts or Science. Duration of post secondary education varies in Technical and Professional fields, the Poly Technic Institutes offer four years B. Tech course. A Bachelor degree in medicines requires five years education. Similarly, Bachelor degree courses in Engineering, Agriculture and Veterinary medicines are awarded of four years duration after the intermediate examination.
An additional two years after the bachelor degree are required to acquire a master degree in Arts/Commerce or Science leading to award of Ph.D degree which may require two or three more years after the completion of master degree course.
In the existing Primary Schools network during 1997-98 in Mirpurkhas, there were total 1592 schools including mosque schools, out of which 1468 schools were located in rural areas and 124 schools in urban areas, urban schools of total 124 were further bifurcated into 81 male and 43 female schools. Total primary enrolment of 69634 souls was noted (43978 male and 25656 female) in the district, 3875 teaching staff was engaged in providing primary education including 1078 female teachers.
Teacher student ratio worked out on the basis of information received from the Education Department stands at 1:16, 1:24 and 1:18 for male, female and both sexes respectively.
The participation rate at primary level calculated on the basis of population projection stands at 58% for male and 37% for female; over all participation is worked out to 48%.
In Mirpurkhas District, there were 230 closed/on paper Primary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 738 boys and 75 girls schools were lacking toilets. 825 schools were without drinking water facility. 796 Primary schools including 49 girls schools are without boundary wall. 186 schools are functioning either in rental building or are shelterless. 360 schools require repair, where as 32 schools were working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
The Social Action programme SAP has taken care of the idea by enhancing female enrolments and developed following criteria which will boost up the female primary education.
(a) The first school in a area shall be established as mixed school. The Second School in the same areas shall be girls school. (b) No existing primary school within the range of 1.5 km. (c) The age group population of 5-9 years must be 100.
For universalization of primary education there is need of opening new schools which will provide additional enrolment resulting in increase of literacy rate. There is need of reactivation of closed schools. And also there is need of resorting the existing enrolment for which reconstruction/improvement in existing schools is required.
To achieve the goal following are the recommendations.
A. REACTIVATION OF CLOSED PRIMARY SCHOOLS: 1. Stoppage of transfer/deputation of teacher from village schools to urban area or place of their choice.
2. The closed schools located at remote places/or in a settlements below criteria and having no school building may officially be declared as closed and a new school may be established at a deserving rural settlement that falls on the population criteria etc.
3. In future, while appointing primary school teachers (male/female), preference may be given to local area teachers. Due to this at least "non local teachers" will not be the reason for closure of the schools.
B. CONSOLIDATION OF EXISTING PRIMARY SCHOOLS: 1. Buildings may only be provided to already established school functioning in a temporary accommodation running under trees in Jhugis or rented building and having atleast enrolment of 60 children.
2. Furniture/Electricity/Water/Toilet/Latrine facility may be provided to such an established schools that have suitable building and having no such facilities in the first instance.
3. Re-adjustment of existing schools buildings may be done through administrative steps. A simple executive order issued for introduction of double shift programme in urban/rural locations will change the scenario and will also save the anticipated development expenditure to be incurred on provision of separate building facility for boys & girls.
4. The boys school buildings located in rural settlements with 1000 and above population can be provided with additional class rooms if required in order to make the school five roomed.
1. Instead of opening new primary schools for boys (alongwith construction of a new building) in rural settlements of 500-999, following strategy is proposed to be adopted:
a) In case of a building available for girls school, 2 shifts approach may be adopted. This will result in full utilization of the available school buildings.
b) Only mosque schools may be opened, where there is a gap in rural settlements below 500 population at the initial stage. After three years the mosque schools that attain an enrolment of 50 or more, (based on evaluation) may be converted into a primary school. The building may be provided to such school where there is no school building already available in the village.
3. No new building may be provided where the schools can run in shifts in the existing buildings of a primary school for boys or girls. This type of administrative action will reduce the development cost to be incurred on construction of new buildings.
In urban area, co-education at primary level may be introduced and female teacher may be appointed/posted in primary schools.
Secondary education consists of middle/high schools. In its existing position there were 47 middle schools (24 male and 23 female) in district Mirpurkhas with enrolment of 3002 and 223 teachers as per information available for 97-98. There were 2 Elementary School working in the district, One in Digri and one in Mirpurkhas.
As regards the high schools, there were 54 high schools (39 for male and 15 for female) in the district during 1997-98. There were working 474 teachers to coupe with the enrolment of 12499.
In Mirpurkhas District, there were 5 closed/on paper Secondary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 12 boys and 12 girls schools were lacking toilets. 37 schools were without drinking water facility. 23 Secondary schools including 10 girls schools are without boundary wall. 4 schools are functioning either in rental building or are shelterless. 41 schools require repair, whereas 10 schools are working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
In order to provide secondary education, urban locations must be covered with secondary school of male as well as female in case of non availability of school. Initially, middle school may be provided which could be up-graded to high school later on as per requirement. There are 16 Higher Secondary Schools in Mirpurkhas district having 6261 enrolment (2227 male 4034 female) with 200 teaching staff.
There are 4 colleges, out of which 3 colleges are reserved for boys and 1 college for girls having 8086 students, same colleges are enriched with teaching staff of 102 male and 47 for female in the district Mirpurkhas.
Presently, in Mirpurkhas there are 2 Polytechnic institutes having enrolment 511 students and 2 Commercial training institute having intake capacity of 140 students with enrolment of 150 students located in Mirpurkhas taluka.
There are 2 Commercial training centres having enrolment of 60 students. In addition to above, there is one technical high school and one teacher training wing at Govt Vocational Institute (Women), one vocational institute for women is located in Mirpurkhas taluka having intake capacity of 200 students with enrolment of 55 female students. CHAPTER-7

7.1 District Mirpurkhas has 1 hospital, 2 Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals, 5 Rural Health Centres, 32 Basic Health Units and 5 Dispensaries with total bed capacity of 395. There are 117 doctors and 249 para medical staff in public sector who extend health services to 14,002 outdoor and 3,960 indoor patients in the district.
7.2 On the basis of existing health facilities, taluka wise details of population per health/bed facility are given in Table No.8.
7.3 The Civil Hospital Located in Mirpurkhas city provides health facilities to Mirpurkhas city & its adjoining areas and whole of the district. Other urban localities are either covered with T.H.Q., R.H.C or B.H.U. The Town wise coverage of Health facility is given in Table No. 1.A.
7.4 By the end of December, 1998, the public sector health institutions in the District and other urban centres consisted of 5 R.H.Cs, 32 B.H.Us and 5 dispensaries. The Taluka-wise details are given in table No.1.B. As per policy of the government, a BHU has been provided in the every Union Council.
7.5 It may be pointed out that twenty two Union Councils of the district have already been covered with Health Facility of RHC or BHU. However, there are still number of big rural settlements/villages which go without health facilities. The taluka wise Union councils, covered with Health facility, are given in Table No. 7.
7.6 As per prescribed criteria, a Dispensary can be established in a rural settlement with population of 1000 having no health facility within the radius of 2-3 Keeping in view the rural settlement pattern of the population census 1998, the following 75 rural settlements are categorized as big settlements with a population of 1000 & above in Mirpurkhas:
Settlement No.of Covered with DevelopmentSize Settlements Health Facilities Gap As per Population (1998) ----------- ------------- ------------------ --------------
1000 & above 75 45 30

7.7 Out of 75 settlements, 45 are covered with health facility. The rest of 30 settlements are yet to be covered in the Mirpurkhas district.
7.8 In order to make programme a success, the local community participation is necessary. They can share in the development activity by providing piece of land for construction of health facility and labour, etc.
7.9 The Government has accorded the highest priority to preventive programmes such as EPI, AIDS Control Programme, Maleria Control Programme and Health Education. The diseases covered under the EPI programme are the major killers of children. Efforts are being made to cover most of infants under this programme. It is under execution since 1979. The major objectives of the project are as under:-
(i) Vaccination of 90% new born infants and 100% remaining 12-23 months children against Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Measles and Childhood Tuberculosis.
(ii) Vaccination of 70% pregnant ladies and 100% of child bearing age ladies with atleast two doses of Tetanus Toxoid in order to eliminate neo-natal tetanus.

8.1 Potable Water Supply is a pre-requisite for the health of people. Lack of proper drinking Water Supply and Sanitation in rural as well as urban areas has caused wide spread water borne diseases of which diarrhoea among small children happens to be a major killer. These diseases are transmitted by water and poor sanitation which deplete human energy resulting in sickness reducing thereby the productivity of the people.
8.2 The position with regard to drinking water is not so acute in the Mirpurkhas District the Nara canal from the River Indus has been harnessed to provide irrigation for the long stretches of land in the district. This also provides a source of drinking water to a large number of people.
8.3 Mirpurkhas district comprises of 3 Talukas with one Municipal and 6 Town Committees having total population of 899 thousand persons of which only 291 thousand persons reside in urban areas. 14 schemes for providing water supply to the people of urban area have been completed upto June, 1997 and one scheme is under implementation at the estimated cost of Rs. 24.637 million. Details of completed scheme of water supply are given in Table No.1.
8.4 As regards the urban drainage system in District Mirpurkhas, almost all urban localities have been facilitated by drainage facility. 6 schemes of drainage have been completed upto June, 1997. Details of completed Drainage Settlement are given in Table No.1.
8.5 The water supply facility in the rural areas of Sindh through a piped water system is to be provided according to the criteria which assigns priority to "A rural settlement with population of 1000 and above preferably having brackish ground water". In Mirpurkhas district, 75 rural settlement having population upto 1000 are categorised in to 3 type of settlements in descending order according to their size of population taking into account the quality of ground water.
8.6 Presently, out of 16 rural settlements having population 2000 and above, 9 settlements have been covered by the water supply facility. In second category which includes 16 settlements with population ranging between 1999 to 1500, 6 rural settlements have been facilitated by water supply schemes while in the third category out of 43 rural settlements 23 have been covered by such facility. Thus, out of total 75 rural settlements 38 settlements are covered with the required facility of water supply as reported upto June 1997. Taluka-wise details of uncovered settlements and their quality of water is given in table No.3.
8.7 For providing the water supply to uncovered rural settlements, 6 schemes are under implementation at the estimated cost of Rs.17.678 million during the current year i.e. 1997-98 leaving development gap of 31 uncovered villages. According to our criteria, 25 additional settlements with brackish water will require water supply schemes on priority basis. Details of completed, on-going schemes and No. of brackish water settlements (taluka wise) are given at table No.2 and 3.
8.8 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed drainage scheme (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.5.
8.9 Drainage system in the rural areas of Sindh under the prescribed criteria is provided for "A rural settlement with population 1000 & above preferable having water system". Presently out of total 75 rural settlements 14 settlements have been covered by the drainage facility. Under the first category, out of 16 rural settlements having population of 2000 and above, 8 settlements are facilitated by the drainage facility. In second category only one settlement out of 16 have been covered with drainage and under third category out of 43 rural settlements 5 settlements have the facility of drainage system. Taluka wise detail of completed drainage schemes are given in table No.4. 8.10 For providing the Rural Drainage facility to the uncovered rural settlements another 2 schemes are under implementation at the estimated cost of Rs.10.470 million during the current year (i.e.1997-98), leaving a development gap of 59 rural settlements. According to criteria, 26 additional rural settlement with water supply will require the drainage facility on priority basis. The details of taluka-wise completed, on-going schemes and uncovered settlements are given in table 2 & 4. 8.11 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed drainage scheme (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.6.


8.12 More than 86% population of rural Sindh resides in villages upto 1000 population. Rural Development Department, Govt. of Sindh has been charged with the responsibility of providing Water Supply and Sanitation facilities in these settlements. Presently, it executes two Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Projects funded by the World Bank and UNICEF respectively. Through these projects, potable water is provided by installing hand pumps while Sanitation facilities are provided by constructing household latrines and imparting hygiene Education in villages having population of upto one thousand souls.
8.13 In District Mirpurkhas, there are a number of 1452 villages with population upto 1000. Rural Development Department has so far provided 332 water supply Schemes through hand pumps in 146 villages and covered 0.020 million population. This leaves the development gap of a large number of small settlements i.e. 1306 villages where this facility is yet to be provided. Taluka wise details are given at table No.7.
8.14 The Rural Development Department has also helped in forming effective Village Organisations to function collectively and carry forward the participatory development approach. The concept is that by using both local and external resources and working together, the development of the villages can take place. In sanitation, households contribute more than the government share. The Rural Development Department component of this project has adopted bold initiatives in Community Participation and Co-ordination with other institutions (government and non-government) to bring a range of services to project villages.
8.15 The project has following components:-
1. Community Development. 2. Health Development. 3. Water Supply. 4. Sanitation. 5. District Co-ordination Committees. 6. Training. 7. Institutional Strengthening. 8. Documentation.
8.16 Under the two projects aided by World Bank and UNICEF, village Organisations are formed. The hand pumps and sanitation schemes are operated and maintained by the communities.
8.17 In most of the urban areas the problem is more of inadequate and inefficient distribution rather than that of water supply availability. Attention should there fore be focused on a better distribution system alongwith an augmentation of suppers.
8.18 In case of sewerage and drainage, the situation is much worse and is aggravated by the expansion of water supply facilities. Provision of sewerage & drainage disposal facilities has therefore to match the programme of water supply.
8.19 Priority should be given to those areas where sweet ground water is not available at a reasonable depth and where water has to be fetched from distance.( Details are given in Table No.3) Similarly, Special consideration has to be given to areas where the rural population presently relies on surface water which is unfit for human consumption.
8.20 In areas where people have installed their own hand pump, priority should be given to sanitational disposal schemes. Piped water supply system is to be restricted to bigger village with a population ranging from 3000 to 5000. Hand pumps are being provided to smaller villages and initial delivery systems should be based on community stand-post and storage tanks.8.21 Piped water-supply should be provided only at places where underground water is brackish, but here also the quality of material used and the workmanship must be improved. Frequent water leakages due to use of sub-standard pipes and defective implementation of schemes have created further problems through collection of water in the residential areas and damages of the buildings.
8.22 Water-supply through the implementation of water-supply schemes needs to be monitored regularly to ensure that the water is fit for human consumption. This is desirable specially because the water-supply schemes in Sindh do not provide for the filtration or chlorination process. Long-term effect of such water on health of the people needs to be studied.
8.23 Top priority be assigned to the sanitary disposal of sewage and waste-water which has collected in the form of stinking ponds in the vicinity of the towns and the larger rural settlements. The sewage so collected can neither be disposed off through land treatment (since it may cause soil sickness) nor it could be pumped into the flowing canals due to the fear of water pollution. The sewage ponds give rise to mosquito breeding and are likely to pollute the subsoil water which is the source of drinking water in this area. As such the top priority/attention should be given to solve this problem. The sewage could be treated in the oxidation ponds or in the digesting chambers. It would then be easy to dispose off the treated water into the flowing canals.
8.24 The Public Health Engineering Department (PHED)is responsible for planning, designing and construction of Water Supply Schemes in the province essentially in the larger villages having population of 1000 and above as per prescribed criteria. Sanitation/Drainage schemes are also provided by PHED in villages above 1000 persons where water supply schemes have been already provided. Details of such villages already covered/uncovered through drainage may be seen in table No.4.
8.25 Normally after completion of the schemes Public Health Engineering Department used to hand over the completed schemes to the local councils for operation and maintenance who under took maintenance task with great reluctance due to their unsound financial position, lack of technical know-how and doubts about the quality of construction work of completed schemes. As a result most of the completed schemes are poorly maintained by local councils and are either being partly run or closed down without any public utility.
8.26 Present Government has launched the Social Action Programme (SAP) in the Country which aims to improve the quality of life particularly in rural areas by providing basic amenities, such as, primary education, health care, safe drinking water and sanitation.
8.27 The Provincial Government has adopted a "unified policy" which imbibes the community to take operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Schemes on sustainable basis and as such has decided the following measures:-
(a) That all the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme will be dealt on Community basis.
(b) The Community will be motivated to form village development organisations (VDOS) which will closely associated with the implementation of the schemes at all stages and the completed schemes will be taken over by them for O/M and Management.
(c) In view of unsatisfactory financial conditions of most of the rural communities, it has been decided by the Present Government to provide cost of electricity and non routine maintenance, whereas "Community" will bear the cost of engaging operators/personnel and routine maintenance through recovery of user charges from the consumers.


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