Saturday, March 12, 2005

Hyderabad Economic Profile

SINDH REGIONAL PLAN ORGANISATION

DRAFTDISTRICT DEVELOPMENT PROFILE/PLANDISTRICT HYDERABAD1998

MARCH, 2000 DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT PROFILE/PLAN HYDERABAD 1999
CONTENTS

Chapter Title Page No.
District Mape I District at Glance 1 - 3
Chapter-1 Geographical Characteristics 4 - 6
1.1 Introduction 1.2 Location 1.3 Topography-(Tract/Zone) 1.4 Climate 1.5 Administrative set up
Chapter-2 Demographic Characteristics 7 - 10
2.1 Population 1998 2.2 Settlement pattern (size) urban/rural. - Statistical Tables 9 - 10
Chapter-3 Agriculture 11 - 36
3.1 Land Utilization 12 3.2 Crop Position 13 3.2.1 Wheat 13 3.2.2 Cotton 13 3.2.3 Rice 14 3.2.4 Sugarcane 14 3.2.5 Minor Crops 15 3.3 Fertilizer 15 3.4 Improved Seed 16 3.5 Pesticides 17 3.6 Livestock 18 3.7 Veterinary Institution 20 3.8 Inland Fisheries 21 3.9 Forest 22 3.10 Food Storage 23 -- Statistical Tables 25 - 36
Chapter-3-A Village Electrification 37
Chapter-4 Manufacturing 38 - 45
4.1 Existing Manufacturing 4.2 Industrial Small Scale Units 4.3 District potentials. - Statistical Tables 43 - 45
Chapter-5 Road Net work (Normal/F.T.M) 46 - 50
5.1 Existing Situation 5.2 Road Standards 5.3 Analysis 5.4 Development Gaps - Statistical Tables 49 - 50
Chapter-6 Education 51 - 62
6.1 Primary Education 6.2 Secondary Education 6.3 High Secondary Education 6.3 College Education 6.4 Technical/Commercial/Vocational Education 6.5 Professional Education 6.6 Medical Education 6.7 Establishment of General University 6.8 Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education - Statistical Tables 58 - 62
Chapter-7 Health 63 - 79
7.1 Existing Position of Health alongwith development gap. - Statistical Tables 66 - 79
Chapter-8 Water Supply & Drainage/ Sewerage 80 - 93
8.1 Urban Water Supply 8.2 Urban Drainage 8.3 Rural Water Supply 8.4 Rural Drainage 8.5 Facilities provided through Rural Development Department. 8.6 Policy Issues/Options. - Statistical Tables 87 - 93 DISTRICT AT GLANCE GENERAL INFORMATION DISTRICT HYDERABAD
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------1. ADMINISTRATIVE SETUP
Sub-Division Nos. 6 Talukas " 7 Union Councils " 62 Market Committee " - Deh " 407 Villages/Settlements " 2,028 Metropolitan/Municipal Corp: " 1 Municipal Committees " 3 Town Committees " 9 2. AREA Sq.kms. 5,519
3. DEMOGRAPHY -
Population (Total) Nos. 28,40,653 Male " 14,81,868 Female " 13,58,785
Rural " 13,92,696 Male " 7,25,571 Female " 6,67,125
Urban " 14,47,957 Male " 7,56,297 Female " 6,91,660
Population Density Per sq.km. 515
4. AGRICULTURE (MAJOR CROPS)
Area Hectare
Cotton " 60,476 Rice " 14,338 Wheat " 1,14,125 Sugarcane " 63,176 Jawar " - Barley " - Rape Seed & Mustered " 1,397 Gram " -
Production
Cotton Bales 2,23,752 Rice M.Tons 31,632 Wheat " 2,63,965 Sugarcane " 41,08,926 Jawar " - Barley " - Rape Seed & Mustard " 898 Gram " -
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------
5. INDUSTRIAL SETUP
Sugar Factories Nos. 6 Cotton Ginning Factories " 13 Rice Mills " - Oil Mills " 4 Ice Factories " - Others " 72
6. ENERGY
Villages Electrified(200 & above) Nos. 1,262
Development Gap (200 & above) " 766
7. COMMUNICATION: 2,679
Mettled Road Kms. 2,156
Un-Mettled Road (Katcha) " 523
8. EDUCATION:
Primary Schools Nos. 3,228
a) Male " 2,626 b) Female " 602
Middle Schools " 171
a) Male " 127 b) Female " 44
High Schools " 152
a) Male " 101 b) Female " 51
9. HEALTH INSTITUTIONS:
Civil Hospital/Other Major Nos. 5 Hospitals.
Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals " 3
Rural Health Centres " 13
Basic Health Units " 54
Dispensaries (Govt.) " 9
(2)
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------

10. UTILITIES:
Rural Water Supply Schemes Nos. 85 (Completed)
Rural W/S Coverage 1000+ " 85 Population Settlements
Development Gap* " 244
Rural Drainage Scheme (Completed) " 60
Rural Drainage (Coverage) 1000+ " 60
Development Gap (1000) Settlement " 269



















(3) CHAPTER-1

GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1. INTRODUCTION:
1.1 Location:
The district takes its name from its headquarters town which is the second biggest city of Sindh Province. After the 1972 Census of Pakistan whole of Badin and Tando Bago Taluka, most of Matli Taluka and about half of Tando Muhammad Khan Taluka were taken out from the old Hyderabad district to form Badin district.
The district lies from 24-46 to 26-06 north latitudes and 68-16 to 68-59 east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by Nawabshah district, in the east by Sanghar and Tharparkar districts, in the south by Badin District and in the west by Thatta and Dadu districts.The total area of the district is 5,683 sq. km. 1.2 Topography: Hyderabad district is a part of the Lower Indus plain. The Indus river flows along the western boundary of the district. It has a uniform land surface formed by the alluvial deposits of the Indus river. There are no mountains or hills in the district except some small hillocks locally known as Ganjo Takkar, meaning bald hillocks. They run parallel to the river Indus for about 22 kilometres south of Hyderabad city. The highest point in these hillocks is known as Gaho which is about 75 metres above sea level. There are also two small hillocks on the north of Tando Muhammad Khan town. They are named as Budhaka Takkar. The rest of the district is a fertile plain with an elevation of about 50 metres above sea level. There are some good reserves of forests in Hala Taluka along the river Indus.
1.3 Climate:
The climate of Hyderabad District, on the whole is moderate. May and June are hottest months. The temperature sometimes rises to 115 F - the highest recorded temperature being 120 F. There is always a fall in temperature at night. There are occasional showers in the month of July and the temperature rarely rises to 110 F. In winter, temperature seldom rises above 70 F during day, but the night temperature falls within a few degrees of the freezing point. Sometimes, cold waves from Baluchistan make the winter severe. Humidity is variable, it is highest on the whole at the end of August and much less in May when the air is uncomfortably dry. During summer, the wind blows in the south-west and in winter north-west direction. During the months of May and June, hot winds laden with dust blow constantly south-west direction. The district lies in the rain shadow area, and heavily laden south-west monsoon clouds rising from the Arabian sea pass over this area without any showers. In winter, the district gets some rain from the cyclonic winds, blowing from the Persain Gulf.
The mean maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall, recorded at Hyderabad, is given below:-
Table No.1.1
Data on Temperature and precipitation Mean temperature (C)
Month Maximum Minimum Precipitation (millimetres) January 24.2 10.1 4.0 February 28.4 12.8 5.0 March 34.2 17.7 1.0 April 39.4 22.2 2.0 May 42.3 25.9 4.0 June 40.6 27.9 6.0 July 37.5 27.5 68.0 August 36.1 26.5 44.0 September 38.8 25.1 15.0 October 37.1 21.5 3.0 November 32.3 16.2 1.0 December 26.4 11.8 2.0 Annual 34.9 28.9 155.0 ________________________________________________________
Source: Meteorological Department, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad 1981.
1.4 Administrative Set Up:
For the purpose of Provincial Government administration, the district has been divided into seven talukas, namely, Hyderabad Taluka, Hyderabad City, Latifabad, Tando Allahyar, Tando Muhammad Khan, Hala & Matiari and six sub divisions.
The local bodies set up include one Municipal Corporation, three Municipal Committees, Nine Town Committees. At the level of Union Council, for rural areas, there are 52 Union Councils constituted with 407 dehs and 2028 villages/settlements located within the boundaries of union councils. At present, there are 33 police stations and 170 post offices in district Hyderabad. Table No.1.2 Administrative Break-up: Sub Division: 6 Taluka 7 Municipal Corporation 1 Municipal Committee 3 Town Committee 9 Union Council 62 Market Committee 4 Deh 407 Village Settlements 2028 Police Station 33 Post Offices. 170 CHAPTER- 2
DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
2.1 The Hyderabad District is spread over 5519 sq.kms., that is, 4.03% of the total geographical area of Sindh, but its share in total Population in 1998 accounted for 2840653 souls or 9.4% of the provincial population. It increased by 38% during 1981-98 intercensal period in a span of 17 years at an average annual growth rate of 1.92%. In accordance with the land area of Hyderabad district i.e. 5683 sq. kms. there is density of 515 persons per sq. km. as compared to 361 persons per sq. kms. in 1981. Out of its total population, 1447957 persons or 51% are settled in urban areas and remaining 1392696 persons or 49% are located in rural areas. The sex ratio (male per 100 females) is worked out at 109; this ratio is also constituted of 109 males for rural and urban areas respectively. Town-wise urban population is depicted in table No.I. According to 1998 population census, there are total 485967 households in Hyderabad district comprising of 2840653 persons thus giving an average size of six persons per household. The taluka wise population of 1998 is depicted in table No.II.
SETTLEMENT PATTERN:
2.2 There are 2028 of rural settlements having population 200-1000 of which 327 are categorized as settlements of population with 1000+ souls. By definition settlement is defined as "Place of human habitation from one isolated house to a big town or a city with certain identified location and name" on other hand the village as per definition of Board of Revenue Sindh, is defined as "Place of human habitation having atleast ten houses".
2.3 The village in population terms therefore could be defined as a place of human habitation having population of about 70-100 persons (7-10 household size) and above (but not more than 5000) with certain identified location and name. The Rural settlement pattern 200 and above according to survey conducted by Sindh Bureau of Statistics during 1995 are depicted below:
-----------------------------------------------------------------Taluka Settlement having Population 200-499 500-599 1000+ Total-----------------------------------------------------------------Hyderabad 275 91 58 424Hala 128 56 77 261Tando Allahyar 345 117 76 538Tando M.Khan 357 83 42 482Matiari 166 83 74 323-----------------------------------------------------------------Total: 1271 430 327 2028-----------------------------------------------------------------
Source:- Sindh Bureau of Statistics.
2.4 The above table reveals that number of settlements having 200-499 constitute 63% of the total settlements of 200-1000. The rural settlements having population of 200+ may be considered as a cut off point and need special attention by providing basic socio-economic facility School/Electricity. The rural settlements less than 500 and more than 200 (200-499) clearly qualify for a mosque school and provision of electricity. The rural settlements with population less than 1000 (500-999) may be considered for provision of education, electricity/pucca road facility and the rural settlements with population 1000 and above should be considered for all possible civic amenities to convert them into sub urban localities and to attract surrounding scattered hamlets to voluntary migration. CHAPTER 3
AGRICULTURE SECTOR
Pakistan's economy has undergone considerable diversification over the years yet the agriculture sector still constitutes its back-bone. With its present contribution to GDP at 24.87 percent, agriculture accounts for half of the total employed labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings while it serves as the base sector for the country's major industries like textiles and sugar.
The economic development of Sindh is largely dependent on the progress and growth of Agriculture sector. Sindh province contributes significantly towards over-all national agriculture with 26% of the cultivated area, 17% of the cropped area and 16% of the irrigated area, 19% of the total forest area, 43% of the total production of rice, 25% of cotton, 14% wheat, 30% sugar cane, 22% other food grains, 59% of marine fish, 60% of inland fish and 28% of the live stock production originates in Sindh. Lower productivity levels per hectare continue to be problem No. 1 of crop production. Over the last ten years period, most insignificant increases are noticeable in yield of major crops in view of efforts undertaken to eradicate water-logging and Salinity, provision of new seed varieties, increased use of fertilizer, pesticides, provision of agriculture extension services and on-farm water management practice and close co-ordination among farmers and agricultural field staff. Achievements of self sufficiency in major crop production must, therefore, address to the key issue bottlenecks. The enhancement of yields in the shortest possible time needs to be taken by reviewing existing programme by involving farming community in co-operative manners reducing reliance on extension staff.
3.1 LAND UTILIZATION.
The pattern of land use in a region determines crop production. Soil & climate play an important role in the management of cropping pattern of a region. Crop area used for food and cash crops can be taken as an index of the type of land system and the economic use for these crops. Land use data for latest five years are given in table No.1. The reported area in Hyderabad increased from just over 532.9 thousand hectares in 1993-94 to about 551.3 thousand hectares in 1997-98. However, not all of this area is cultivable. 28.8% was reported "uncultivable" though its share was 27.0% in 1993-94.
The share of cultivated area (in the area reported) decreased from 73.0% in 1993-94 to about 71.2% in 1997-98. It, however, is much higher as compared to over all Sindh reflecting higher cropping intensities. From the data given in table No.1, the cropping intensities have been increasing since many years, and an acre of land in Hyderabad district is almost being cropped fully once in a year with 97.5% cropping intensity. Moreover, the cropped area increased from 362.9 thousand hectares in 1993-94 to 382.4 thousand hectares in 1997-98.
The cropped area increased by about 4.7% likewise the cultivated area also slightly increased by 0.9% during the period of five years. A small part of the area about 1.7% is being used for grazing or forest and remaining land is lying unused due to unfavourable condition or lack of irrigation water.
It is noted that the pressure of total rural population on cultivated area has increased considerably since last many years. The ratio of cultivated area per person decreased from 0.21 in 1993-94 to 0.14 in 1997-98.
3.2 CROP POSITION.
There are two main crop seasons; "Kharif" and "Rabi" in Hyderabad District. The Kharif season starts from April-May and ends in October-November while the Rabi starts from November-December and ends in April-May. However due to regional variation in temperature, several factors i.e varieties, availability of water, soil texture etc determine the crop pattern, sowing and harvesting time. The Crops are further categorized into major and minor crops. Wheat, Cotton, Rice, Sugar-cane are the major crops of the district. Barely, bajra, jowar, maize, gram, rapeseed, mustard, sesamum, oil seeds and fall in the category of minor crops.
3.2.2 WHEAT.
Wheat is also a staple food crop of the people of Hyderabad district. Thus it occupies the majority of cultivated land under wheat. Its share in total cropped area was recorded at 72.7%. The area and production of wheat for the year 1997-98 were estimated at 114.1 thousand hectares and 264.0 thousand tonnes respectively. The yield, however, was recorded at 2313 kgs.
The area under wheat significantly declined by 8.1% during the year 1994-95. However, it recovered the area by 16.0% in the next year. The production situation generally remained satisfactorily over the last five years and it grew at the rate of 7.2% due to favourable whether condition at sowing times (Table No.2).
COTTON:
Cotton is not only an export earning crop but it also provides raw material to local textile industries in Hyderabad as well as Sindh. Its share in production stands at 9.6% in Sindh. The latest estimates of area and production for the year 1997-98 for Hyderabad district were recorded at 60.5 thousand hectares and 223.8 thousand bales representing an increase in area by 0.4% and decrease in production by 5.1% over the previous year. However, the yield per hectare decreased by 9.0% from 665 kgs. per hectare in 1996-97 to 629 kgs. per hectare in 1997-98 as the crop was suffered heavily on account of leaf curl virus in the cotton growing areas of Hyderabad district.
RICE:
Rice is an important food as well as highly valued cash crop that earns substantial foreign exchange for the country. Despite the relative price having favoured the high yielding varieties, farmers traditionally grow the IRRI, and other varieties in district Hyderabad. (Table No.2)
The area under rice decreased by 15.0% from 16.9 thousand hectares in 1996-97 to 14.3 thousand hectares in 1997-98. Besides, the production of rice also went down significantly by 22.0% from 40.6 thousand tonnes to 31.6 thousand tonnes. Similarly yield per hectare also decreased by 8.3% from 2405 kgs. per hectare to 2206 kgs. per hectare.(Table No.2)
SUGARCANE:
Sugar production in the Sindh province depends mostly on sugarcane crop. Keeping in view its importance, great deal of attention has been paid to increase both the area and production of sugarcane. It was reported that during the year 1997-98 the sugarcane area and production upsurged by 3.9% & 29.0% respectively.(Table No.2)
Similarly, the yield per hectare which increased by 24.2% from 52.4 metric tonnes per hectares in 1996-97 to 65.0 metric tonnes per hectare in 1997-98. The increase was mainly due to the attractive incentives to the farmers provided by the sugar mill management and also an increase in support price and favourable climatic condition prevailing in the sugarcane growing areas of district Hyderabad.
MINOR CROPS:
The information available in table No.3 depicts that Onion, Bajra, Masoor, Maize, Rape & Mustard and Matter were the minor crops which significantly contributed the share of 2.6%, 0.9%, 0.5%, 0.4%, 0.4% and 0.3% in the total cropped area of the district Hyderabad respectively during the year 1997-98.
3.3 FERTILIZER:
Fertilizer is one of the major input which can enhance the crop production. The timely application and use of correct doze is an essential factor for increasing crop yields. Its contribution towards increased crop production is about 50%.
Mostly, the soils of Hyderabad district are fertile but they are also deficit in nitrogenous and phosphatic nutrients. Nitrogen is very essential for accelerating plant vigour producing large number of flowers, number of sound seeds per capsule and their proper size. It increases protein content of the seed as well. Phosphorous contributes in photosynthetic activities of plants, formation of seed, fibre and proper development of root system.
The recommended dozes of nitrogenous, phosphatic & potassium fertilizer varies from crop to crop and other factors like fertility of soil, topography, availability of water, use of quality seed, proper preparation of land etc. also contributes towards crop production.
The information available in table No.4 on off-take of fertilizer for the period from 1993-94 to 1997-98 depicts that it grew at the rate of 2.7% per annum in Hyderabad district. The total off-take of fertilizer (N+P+K) in Hyderabad district in both the Kharif and Rabi seasons of 1997-98 was 58.8 thousand nutrients tonnes which was 5.6% lower than the corresponding period of the last year. However, the figures show a remarkable increase of 46.6% in off-take of fertilizer during the year 1995-96 as compared to last year where it was 40.0 thousand M.tonnes.
It is estimated that off-take of fertilizer in Hyderabad district was 9.8% of the total off-take in Sindh.
3.4 IMPROVED SEED:
Quality of seed is a basic requirement for increasing the production and productivity of the crop. It is a low cost input but has the potential to increase crop yield on an average by 20% as compared to non-certified seeds.
It is reported that sale of certified seeds has been declining since many years. The figures indicate in table No.5 that the sale of wheat, paddy and cotton certified seeds drastically decreased by 51%, 64.6% and 34.8% respectively over the period of lat five years. The sale of wheat certified seed was recorded at 16.8 thousand kg. mds. at the cost of Rs.7717 thousand during the year 1997-98 which was 25.0% lesser than the preceding year. It is estimated that 6.8 thousand hectares of wheat crop were cultivated under certified seed which was only 5.9% of the total cropped area under wheat in Hyderabad district.
The distribution of improved paddy seed was estimated at 917 kg. mds. with a total outlays of Rs.344 thousand during the year 1997-98. Its share to the total cropped area under paddy in Hyderabad was remained at 17.0%. Similarly the sale of cotton certified seed is reported at 5.3 thousand kgs. maunds with estimated cost of Rs.7105 thousand in the year 1997-98 which was 2.0% higher than the previous year. Likewise its share in the total cropped area was 3.8%.
The most farmers use their own farm Seed Vast majority have little access for quality control as the public agencies and market agencies do not provide more than 3 to 17 percent of good and certified seed for these crops. The less use of improved seed is one of the most serious factor for obtaining low yields.
3.5 Pesticides.
Pesticides play major role in protecting cops from the attack of pest and disease. It is estimated that crop losses, during the growth season and after harvesting, caused by insect & pests are considerably high to the extent of 25%. Many of these losses are avoidable, if proper preventive and curative measures are taken. Plant protection measures, dependent mainly on pesticides, are grossly inadequate even for the four leading crops. The most preferred use of plant protection measures on crops are now the ground sprays both as preventive and curative measures.
Increase in cropping intensities and cultivation pattern help in the development of permanent flora for retaining the sufficient quantity of seed in soil. The application of tillage operation including hand labour for control of weeds are not traditionally practised due to shortage of labour and its high costs. Weedicides, are not mostly used; however, only insignificant progressive farmers are applying weedicides in wheat crop. It is reported in table No.6 that the area of 3187 hectares under wheat crops was treated with 6.7 metric tonnes weedicide for the control of weeds which covered only 1.2 % of the total area under wheat in Hyderabad district in 1997-98.(Table No.6)
The latest information available on use of pesticides indicates that the plant protection measures were carried out over an area of 4374 hectares under rice crop which utilized the pesticide of 5.1 metric tonnes. The coverage was only 30.4% of the total area cultivated under rice in district Hyderabad.
Cotton crop is attacked by large number of insect & pests from sowing to picking stages. In Hyderabad district, 134.2 thousand hectares under cotton were treated for the control of insect pests. The coverage was 60.0% of the total area under cotton which consumed 408.5 metric tonnes of pesticides.
Similarly, Sugar Cane crop with an area of 46.1 thousand hectares was protected from the attack of insect pests. The 51.4 metric tonnes pesticides were used with a coverage of 4.2% of the total area under sugar cane in Hyderabad district.
3.6 Live Stock:
Live Stock is one of the major sub-sector of Agriculture and back bone of our economy. It contributes roughly one third in the total share of Agriculture GDP. Its main by-products including hides and skins have substantial potential as semi-finished products. A substantial growth in Live Stock products such as milk, meat, beef, mutton, poultry and eggs have been notices since many years.
It has been estimated that over three - fourths of the farm power comes from animals, and they are used for most of the farm operations. Bullocks provide the draft power on farm and in transport around the villages.
Most farmers traditionally keep a few heads of live stock ranging from bullocks for draft to buffaloes or cattle for milk and poultry for eggs & meat. There is a need for increasing the heads of live stock to supplement income by selling products. Production for market even at the expense of consumption at home has become quite common in many areas of Sindh. There are pockets of organised live stock farming, such as cattle farms (or colonies) and poultry farms, located mainly in the urban areas. Most other units are of small size and not well kept.
As per live stock census 1996, the population of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in Hyderabad district were recorded at 435799, 771894, 173174 and 854067 respectively. The population of live stock grew by 7.2% cattle, 8.8% buffaloes, 13.3% sheep and 7.9% goats over the last live stock census enumerated in 1986.(Table No.7)
Meat, hair, hides, skins and wool are the other major products of live stock. Beef is the most important source of meat. But most of this beef is produced from discarded old bullocks, milch cattle and buffaloes, and buffalo calves. Mutton comes next in the market place, and it is provided by a variety of goats and sheep.
During the year 1996-97 it was reported that 294058 animals were slaughtered in the Hyderabad district. Out of the total slaughtered animals, 42329 cattle, 34921 buffaloes, 79118 sheep and 137690 goats were slaughtered. It was estimated that 9.7% cattle, 4.5% buffaloes, 45.7% sheep and 16.1% goats were slaughtered out of the total live stock population in 1996-97. It was observed that slaughtering of buffaloes was increased by more than cent percent whereas in case of cattle, sheep and goats were decreased by 5.6%, 28.3% and 45.3% respectively.( Table No.8)
In order to meet the requirements of meat and milk, live stock farming seems to be necessary in joint venture of public/private sector or helping private sector in importing the livestock for establishing live stock farms through loans on easy terms & conditions. The Hyderabad district posses vast potential for establishing livestock farming in the district.
3.7 Veterinary Institution.
The under nourishment, disease and internal parasites, act as a serious constrain on animal production. The animal have to be guarded against ill health, and preventive/curative measures are required to be taken regularly. The veterinary hospitals, dispensaries and centres provide preventive and curative services for disease control for live stock.
Table No.9 depicts that in Hyderabad district one veterinary hospital, 17 dispensaries and 58 veterinary centres were functioning during the year 1997-98. In all, 76 veterinary institutions were available to provide health coverage and treatment facilities to the entire livestock of the district. Besides, there was one central veterinary agnostic laboratory for early diagnosis of animal diseases and investigating their causes. In all 866 veterinary Institutions were established in the Province of Sindh which translated into the health care ratio of one veterinary Institution for 2628 live stock. It is worked out that Hyderabad district had 8.8% of the total veterinary Institutions in Sindh. (Table No.9)
Institution Sindh Hyderabad %age Share Hospital 64 1 1.6% Dispensaries 115 17 14.8% Centres 687 58 8.4% Total 866 76 8.8%
The establishment of veterinary hospitals/centres at district, tahsil and taluka level has hardly contributed towards live stock disease control. Though expansion of live stock dispensaries and centres in the rural area has partially been successful in disease control, there is a dire need for diversification of veterinary health institutions from cities to rural areas.
The existing position indicates that 240396 animals were treated, and 202589 animals were vaccinated for the control of various diseases in veterinary institutions thereby representing 8.9% of curative and 10.6% of preventive coverage over the total live stock population in Hyderabad district.
3.8 Inland Fisheries:
For inland fishing, main economic activity is practised in rivers, lacks and ponds, etc. In Sindh province. Fish not onlysupplements protein deficiency of food but also earns foreign exchange for the country. Fisheries contributes to both the national income and export earnings.
Inland fish production has been increasing over the years. In Hyderabad district, the inland fish production registered an increase of 20.5% to 12240 m.tonnes in 1994 over the preceding year and remained almost at the same level upto year 1997. It is estimated that Hyderabad district contributes 13.5% of total 91903 m.tonnes inland fish production of Sindh. It is reported that 39800 fishermen were engaged full time in the fisheries sector whereas 20215 fishermen contributed their service for part time during the year 1997. Total number of boats used for the catchment of fish were 375. Of these, 350 boats were sail type and 25 boats were row type.(Table No.10)
Per capita consumption of inland fish in the province of Sindh is very low i.e. 3.1 kg only. Keeping in view of the high rate of population growth, production from land resources will not be able to keep up with the population increase. Protein deficiency could become serious problem in near future. In order to solve this, fish production needs proper attention to exploit the abundant resources to meet the protein needs of a growing population.
3.9 Forest:
Forests are not only necessary for habitation of livestock population but also instrumental in improving environmental quality and provide dependable source for meeting domestic energy requirements of fuel wood. Besides, it helps in conservation of soils, improve environment by controlling pollution, cause rainfall and climatic changes supplement source of energy and stabilize gas and oil prices. The forestry programme in Sindh envisages management of forest on commercial basis in the Riverine forests, irrigation plantation forests, mangrove forests, development of Social Forestry, Agriculture, Coconut and Range lands.
Total forest area in Sindh is 1161 thousand hectares or 8.3% of the Sindh province area which is far below the desired ratio of 20 to 30 percent considered necessary for balanced ecology. The per capita forest area being 0.039 hectare in Sindh province or 0.032 hectares in the country was also quite low as compared to the world average of about 1.0 hectare.
In Hyderabad District the forest area is spread over 38.1 hectares which is 3.3% of the total area under forest in Sindh in the year 1997-98. Hyderabad district produced 48.1 thousand cubic feet timber wood and 178.3 thousand cft. fire wood at the value of Rs.2317.2 thousand which contributed about 15.6% of the total value of forest Timber & Fire wood in Sindh in 1996-97.(Table No.11) The forest out put was increased by Rs.46.2 thousand from Rs.4351.0 thousand in 1996-97 to Rs.4397.1 thousand in 1997-98 representing only 1.1% growth in terms of value in Hyderabad district.
In order to meet the standard ratio of 20-30% land as forest there is a need to bring more area of 110.4 to 165.6 thousand hectares under forest where as in fact there is a substantial potential of growing agro-forest in Hyderabad .
Progress in increasing forest area has been limited due to financial and social constraints. The only need to increase the forest wealth in the province of Sindh as well as in country is to extensively grow trees on farm lands. In order to involve farming community in tree growing activity, social forestry programmes have been launched through out in the country with attractive incentives in the form of subsidized supply of planting stock, partial payment of planting cost, free protection of planted areas for a limited period of time and fair return to the farmers. The tree plantation on katcha/pucca road/canal path and in Government offices, health/education institution shall continue to be encouraged.
3.10 Food Storage:
Maintenance of food grain reserves is necessary to meet the off season requirements and to stabilize the prices. To achieve this end, storage facilities are required by the producers as well as by marketers, processors and the government. The farmer needs storage in order to sell when prices are favourable and reduce seasonal fluctuations in prices. The government requires stocks to carry out the country through bad years. Government role as the distributary agency of essential items necessitates enlargement of storage facilities.
The main thrust of government storage policy is to make available proper storage facilities, bring improvement in grain handling system & reduce grain losses to ensure the supply of adequate and good quality of food grains to the consumers. Food storage in public sector were provided for wheat, rice & cotton.
As a result of significant increase in domestic production and future needs of storage for important agricultural commodities and inputs, the demand for increase in storage capacity has become acute.
As per information provided in table No.12 the storage capacity of 746120 metric tonnes was available with government of Sindh. Of these, 95% godown were owned by food department. Additionally, 0.4% H.type storage accommodation was constructed through annual development programme while 4.6% storage facility was provided at an open plinth. Hyderabad district had H.type storage accommodation with capacity of 55600 metric tonnes. In addition district had the open plinth storage facility of 5000 metric tonnes. CHAPTER 3-A
VILLAGE ELECTRIFICATION.
Electricity is essential for urban/rural development in all sectors of economy and in all walks of life. Provision of electricity to rural people is, in other words, a source of happiness and prosperity to rural masses. Generally electricity in rural areas is provided in rural settlement with population of 200 and above. WAPDA is the sole authority to electrify villages under different programmes.
2. As per population census of 1998, in district Hyderabad, there were 2028 rural settlements with population 200 and above. WAPDA has so far electrified 1262 villages. There are still 766 villages which need to be electrified. CHAPTER-4
MANUFACTURING
EXISTING MANUFACTURING UNITS (MEDIUM & LARGE SCALE).
4.1 The manufacturing establishments in district Hyderabad (as shown in table No.4.1) were reported as 95 units during census of manufacturing Industries (CMI) 1997-98. By comparing with the previous census that took place in 1990-91, under which 89 units were reported, it shows that 6 units have been increased. The leading order of the manufacturing groups during 1997-98 is given below:
S.No. Group No.of Units functioning---- ----- -----------
1. Cotton Textile 72. Salt 103. Sugar 64. Biscuits 75. Fabricated 116. Roller Flour Mills 67. Pharmaceutical 38. Cement 49. Glass Industries 1510. Cotton Ginning 611. Other 20 -------------- 95 --------------
4.2 The detailed position of above mentioned Cotton Textile units, Ready-made, Sugar, Biscuits, Fabricated, Roller Flour Mills, Pharmaceutical, Cement, Glass, Cotton and others manufacturing (Location wise) is given as follows:
TALUKA HYDERABAD.
4.3 In this taluka, there are 88 establishments reported during the census of manufacturing industries (CMI) 1997-98 against the total number of 95 units for the whole district.
TALUKA TANDO MUHAMMAD KHAN.
4.4 In this taluka, there are only 3 sugar mills reported during the last census.
INDUSTRIES IN REST OF DISTRICT:
4.5 In the rest of District Hyderabad, there are only 4 Industrial units including two Cotton Ginning mills located in Hala, one Sugar Mill in Tando Allahyar and one Sugar Mill located in Matiari reported during the census (detail given in table No.4.1).
SUGAR MILL IN DISTRICT Hyderabad.
4.6 There are 6 Sugar Mills in Hyderabad district located in Hyderabad, Matiari, Tando Muhammad Khan and Tando Allahyar and Hala. Hyderabad is basically a major crop growing area. An area of 63178 hectares was brought under Sugar Cane cultivation. However,the field production is 4108926 tonnes (60.5 tonnes yield per hectare) which is on higher side considering the actual requirement. The Sugar Cane requirements of the mills located in Badin District are, therefore, fulfilled by procuring Sugar Cane locally.
INDUSTRIAL ESTATES (SMALL SCALE) IN HYDERABAD.
4.7 The Industrial Estate established under Sindh Small Industries Corporation in Hyderabad district is located in District Headquarter Hyderabad. There are 22 Small Industrial Units functioning as self-employment schemes and 51 units are functioning under Small Industrial Estates. Also 5 projects with 312 employees capacity are under process (other detail as given in table-4.2).
4.8 The detail of Industrial groups as under:
a) Under self Employment Schemes:
i. Cotton Textile 2 ii. Vegetable Ghee 1 iii. Ice Factories 5 iv. Rice Mill 1 v. Dull Mill 1 vi. Others 12
----------- 22
-----------
b) Under Small Industrial Estates:
i. Steel Mill 4 ii. Beverage 1 iii. Building Material 1 M.P.G.(R.C.C. Pipe) iv. Ice Factory 2 v. Vegetable Ghee 21 vi. Dull Mill 1 vii. Others 21
------------- 51 -------------
MINERAL PRODUCTION IN SINDH:
4.9 Sindh province is rich in minerals. 19 minerals are being mined within the province. Identifying the order of mineral production during 1997-98, number one is lime-stone by 27,19,808 M.tonnes, number two is coal producing 1164827 tonnes, number three is shale/clay shown as 585805 M.tonnes; fourth position is that of Dolomite showing 85552 M.tonnes.
MINERAL PRODUCTION IN DISTRICT Hyderabad.
4.10 Hyderabad district with mountainous area of the Sindh province inherits rich mineral resources. Table No.4.3 shows ten types of minerals giving details of production from 1993-94 to 1997-98. The lease for mining of the following minerals has been issued as per following details during 1997-98:
i. Flint stone has been granted lease on about 5000 acres producing approximately 440 tonnes.
ii. Lease for quarrying Lime-stone has been granted on about 1000 acres. Production is shown as 195190 tonnes.
OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION IN DISTRICT HYDERABAD.
4.11 As a result of present explorations, Sindh province has become somewhat rich in oil and gas. In Hyderabad district, there are 4 oil and 2 gas fields. On average, daily oil production in the district is reported as 1577 barrels per day and gas production is 34 million matric cubic feet (mmcft).
4.12 The field wise production of oil and gas is given as under:-



OIL FIELD PRODUCTION AVERAGE PER JULY 94- MARCH 95 DAY (IN BBLS) (IN BBLS) ---------- ----------------- -------------
i. Kunnar 313471 1144ii. Tando Alam 239151 433iii. Bukhari 118666 --iv. Nari 81 -- --------------------------------------------- 671369 15577 ---------------------------------------------
GAS FIELD PRODUCTION AVERAGE JULY 94- MARCH 95 PER DAY IN MMCF IN MMCFF ---------- ----------------- ----------
i. Bukhari 9341 34
iv. Nari 43 -- --------------------------------------------- 9348 34 --------------------------------------------- CHAPTER-5

ROAD NETWORK:

The District of Hyderabad is agriculturally and industrially one of the most important areas in the Province of Sindh and therefore requires adequate communication facilities. It is presently connected on all sides with the important places of the country both by roads and railways. The National Highway from Peshawar to Karachi passes through the area entering at about six miles north of Saeedabad town, running in a southerly direction along the river and leaving it at Kotri. Besides, there are some inter-district roads which connect Hyderabad with Mirpurkhas district in the East, Badin in the South, Sanghar in the North East, Nawabshah in the North, Dadu in North West and Thatta in the South West. Hyderabad is also connected with Karachi by the Super Highway which has reduced the distance between these two cities and provided a special link for the heavy traffic flow to and from Karachi. The road has been developed into 2 carriageways which has substantially reduced travel time. The internal communications in the area are also fairly good; there are a number of metalled roads which link the taluka and other important towns with each other and with the district headquarters. The Farm to Market Roads and link roads connect the taluka headquarters, agricultural farms and hinterland. The provision of farm to market roads is inadequate to cater the ever increasing requirement of metalled road and the farmers experience difficulties in bringing their agriculture produce to the towns.
5.1 RAILWAYS: The district is served with three railway lines of Pakistan Railways which connect Hyderabad with Karachi and Peshawar, Mirpurkhas and Badin Railway Station facilities are provided at all important places. A daily service of Pakistan International Airlines also operates through Hyderabad, connecting it with many important cities of Province and the Country.
5.2 EXISTING ROADS:
The district has a total of 2678.8 Kilometres of roads of which 80.5% are black topped/metalled roads and the rest 19.5% are katcha (un-metalled)/summarized as follows:-
ABSTRACT OF ROAD MILEAGE (K.MS.) OF HYDERABAD DISTRICTAS ON 30-6-1998
I T E M METALLED ROAD KATCHA ROAD TOTAL IN KMS.------------ ------------- ------------ -------
Highways 979.18 -- 979.18Rural Roads 321.79 191.38 513.20Farm to Market Road 854.71 331.70 1186.4 ----------------------------------------------- Grand-Total 2155.68 523.08 2678.8 -----------------------------------------------
Details are given in Table No.2.

5.3 ROAD STANDARDS:
For identifying the development gaps, there are certain standards about adequacy of roads which are as under:-
i) 0.5 of Pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographic area.
ii) Road density based on cultivable area. (2. Kms. per 1 Sq. Km.).
iii) Road density based on cropped area.(1. Km. per 1 Sq. Km.). iv Road network connecting settlements of 1000+ and above 500+ population.
v) Road length per 10,000 population.
vi) Movement of persons goods and services.
The available international standard related to agriculture postulates that there should be atleast 2 Kms. of road for every sq.Km. of cultivated area. Modification of this standard appears necessary from two angles. Firstly, this standard includes other katcha roads as well whereas we would like to evolve a standard in terms of metalled road only. Secondly, the standard is related to cultivated area which is invariably greater than cropped area. We should better adopt the standard of 1 Km. of metalled road per sq. km. of cropped area. From one angle, cropped area standard is also misleading as in irrigated zone it will be much higher than in deserted and hilltorian areas. Hence the standard based on Geographical area is most suited (0.5 km. of pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographical area).
5.4 G A P:
The district of Hyderabad has geographical area of 5519 sq. kms. As per set standard, the requirement of the road network for the district has been worked out to be 2759.5 Kilometres. Thus the gap is identified as 615.14 Kms. CHAPTER-6
EDUCATION
The Majority of Schools in the District belonging to Government are functioning under the supervision of District Education Officer (Male/Female). Education is basic right of the people, therefore Primary Education for Children male/Female is mandatory and it is provided free of cost in the province of Sindh. The formal Educational structure in Sindh is divided into four main streams: the first level known as primary refers to Grade I-V for age of school going population 5-9 years, 2nd stage includes middle secondary, elementary and higher secondary. The third stream is called college education which consists of higher education. After completion of the college education, a candidate is awarded Bachelor degree in Arts or Science. Duration of post secondary education varies in Technical and Professional fields, the Poly Technic Institutes offer four years B. Tech course. A Bachelor degree in medicines requires five years education. Similarly, Bachelor degree courses in Engineering, Agriculture and Veterinary medicines are awarded of four years duration after the intermediate examination.
An additional two years after the bachelor degree are required to acquire a master degree in Arts/Commerce or Science leading to award of Ph.D degree which may require two or three more years after the completion of master degree course.
6.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION:
In the existing Primary Schools network during 1997-98 in Hyderabad, there were total 3228 schools including mosque schools, out of which 2669 schools were located in rural areas and 559 schools in urban areas, urban schools of total 559 were further bifurcated into 380 male and 179 female schools. Total primary enrolment of 226128 souls was noted (136594 male and 89534 female) in the district, 11248 teaching staff was engaged in providing primary education including 3660 female teachers.
Teacher student ratio worked out on the basis of information received from the Education Department stands at 1:20, 1:18 and 1:24 for male, female and both sexes respectively.
The participation rate at primary level calculated on the basis of population projection stands at 60% for male and 41% for female; overall participation is worked out to 51%. Taluka-wise position is depicted in Table No.2.
The City of Hyderabad deserves the highest concentration of educational institutions in the district besides private sector maintains schools and colleges in the city, 127 private schools are successfully functioning having enrolment 39084 (23780 male 15304 female). As regards the teaching staff 1232 teachers were performing in schools with 1072 male and 160 female staff.
In Hyderabad District, there were 280 closed/on paper Primary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 1252 boys and 155 girls schools were lacking toilets. 1691 schools were without drinking water facility. 1517 primary schools including 154 girls schools are without boundary wall. 471 schools are functioning either in rental building or are shelterless. 835 schools require repair, where as 69 schools were working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives. The Social Action programme SAP has taken care of the idea by enhancing female enrolments and developed following criteria which will boost up the female primary education.
CRITERIA FOR RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOLS (2 ROOM)
(a) The first school in a area shall be established as mixed school. The Second School in the same area shall be girls school. (b) No existing primary school within the range of 1.5 km. (c) The age group population of 5-9 years must be 100.
For universalization of primary education there is need of opening new schools which will provide additional enrolment resulting in increase of literacy rate. There is need of reactivation of closed schools. And also there is need of resorting the existing enrolment for which reconstruction/improvement in existing schools is required.
To achieve the goal following are the recommendations.
A. REACTIVATION OF CLOSED PRIMARY SCHOOLS:
1. Stoppage of transfer/deputation of teacher from village schools to, urban area or place of their choice.
2. The closed schools located at remote places/or in a settlements below criteria and having no school building may officially be declared as closed and a new school may be established at a deserving rural settlement that falls on the population criteria etc.
3. In future, while appointing primary school teachers (male/female), preference may be given to local area teachers. Due to this at least "non local teachers" will not be the reason for closure of the schools.
B. CONSOLIDATION OF EXISTING PRIMARY SCHOOLS:
1. Buildings may only be provided to already established school functioning in a temporary accommodation running under trees in Jhugis or rented building and having atleast enrolment of 60 children.
2. Furniture/Electricity/Water/Toilet/Latrine facility may be provided to such an established schools that have suitable building and having no such facilities in the first instance.
3. Re-adjustment of existing schools buildings may be done through administrative steps. A simple executive order issued for introduction of double shift programme in urban/rural locations will change the scenario and will also save the anticipated development expenditure to be incurred on provision of separate building facility for boys & girls.
4. The boys school buildings located in rural settlements with 1000 and above population can be provided with additional class rooms if required in order to make the school five roomed.
C. OPENING OF NEW MOSQUE/PRIMARY SCHOOLS:
1. Instead of opening new primary schools for boys (alongwith construction of a new building) in rural settlements of 500-999, following strategy is proposed to be adopted:
a) In case of a building available for girls school, 2 shifts approach may be adopted. This will result in full utilization of the available school buildings.
b) Only mosque schools may be opened, where there is a gap in rural settlements below 500 population at the initial stage. After three years the mosque schools that attain an enrolment of 50 or more, (based on evaluation) may be converted into a primary school. The building may be provided to such school where there is no school building already available in the village.
3. No new building may be provided where the schools can run in shifts in the existing buildings of a primary school for boys or girls. This type of administrative action will reduce the development cost to be incurred on construction of new buildings.
D. CO-EDUCATION:
In urban area co-education at primary level may be introduced and female teacher may be appointed/posted in primary schools.
6.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION:
Secondary education consists of middle/high schools. In its existing position there were 169 middle schools (125 male and 44 female) in district Hyderabad with enrolment of 15420 and 892 teachers as per information available for 97-98. There were 2 Elementary School working in the district, One in Latifabad and one in Tando Allahyar.
As regards the high schools, there were 136 high schools (90 for male and 46 for female) in the district during 1997-98. There were working 3392 teachers to coupe with the enrolment of 68207.
In Hyderabad District, there were 15 closed/on paper Secondary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 51 boys and 12 girls schools were lacking toilets. 59 schools were without drinking water facility. 60 Secondary schools including 12 girls schools are without boundary wall. 16 schools are functioning either in rental building or shelterless. 121 schools require repair, where as 16 schools are working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
In order to provide secondary education, urban locations must be covered with secondary school of male as well as female in case of non availability of school. Initially, middle school may be provided which could be up-graded to high school later on as per requirement. There are 16 Higher Secondary Schools in Hyderabad district having 18586 enrolment (9389 male 9197 female) with 693 teaching staff.
As regards the rural area every union council should have middle/high school. Rural localities having population 2000 and above must be provided secondary school (middle/high school) for boys and girls. On the basis of information available, development gap in rural settlement 1000 and above was identified and placed in table 9.4.
6.3 COLLEGE EDUCATION.
There are 27 colleges, 2 Colleges for Commerce and one college for Home Economics out of which 17 colleges are reserved for boys and 10 colleges for girls having 30180 students, same colleges are enriched with teaching staff of 479 male and 348 for female in the district Hyderabad. One medical college & one Agriculture University TandoJam is functioning in the district Hyderabad.
6.4 TECHNICAL/COMMERCIAL/VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:
Presently, in Hyderabad there is one Government College of technology located at Wahdat colony having intake capacity of 1128 students whereas the existing enrolment was 2510. There are 2 Polytechnic institute located at Latifabad and Matiari having enrolment 301 students, beside this 2 Mono-technic institute at Pritabad and Latifabad and one Commercial training institute is functioning at Latifabad, Hyderabad.
There are 7 Commercial training centre having enrolment of 181 students. One teacher training wing at Govt Vocational Institute (Women) Latifabad is awarding one year teacher training course. There are 10 students. Besides this 6 vocational institute for women are located at Latifabad, Tando Muhammad Khan, Hala, Pakka Qila Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar and Khaiber having intake capacity of 500 students and enrolment of 86 students.
CHAPTER-7
HEALTH SECTOR
7.1 District Hyderabad has 5 major hospitals (including one medical teaching college hospital and 3 taluka headquarter hospitals), 13 rural health centres, 54 basic health units and 9 dispensaries with total bed capacity of 2359. There are 1199 doctors and 962 para-medical staff in public sector who extend health services to 11,28,520 outdoor and 43,518 indoor patients in the district.
7.2 On the basis of existing health facilities, taluka wise details of population per health/bed facility are given in Table No.8.
7.3 The Liaquat Medical College (LMC) Hospital located in Hyderabad/Jamshoro City specially provides health facilities to Hyderabad City and its adjoining areas and covers almost all the districts of Hyderabad Division. Besides this the other urban localities of Hyderabad District are either covered with T.H.Q. hospitals or R.H.C. and B.H.U. The town-wise coverage of Health facility is given in Table No. 1.A.
7.4 By the end of December, 1998, the public sector health institutions in the District excluding Hyderabad City and other urban centres consisted of 13 R.H.Cs, 54 B.H.Us and 9 dispensaries. In addition to above, two BHUs and one RHC are under construction in the District. The Taluka-wise details are given in table No.1.B. As per policy of the government, a BHU has been provided in the every Union Council.

7.5 It may be pointed out that fifty seven Union Councils of the district have already been covered with Health Facility of RHC or BHU. However, there are still number of big rural settlements/villages which go without health facilities. The taluka wise Union Councils, covered with Health facility are given in Table No. 7.
7.6 As per prescribed criteria, a Dispensary can be established in a rural settlement with population of 1000 having no health facility within the radius of 2-3 k.ms. Keeping in view the rural settlement pattern of the population census 1998, the following 236 rural settlements are categorized as big settlements with a population of 1000 & above in Hyderabad.
Settlement No.of Covered with DevelopmentSize Settlements Health Facilities Gap As per Population (1998) ----------- ------------- ------------------ --------------
1000 & above 327 97 230

7.7 Out of 327 settlements, 97 are covered with health facility. The rest of 230 settlements are yet to be covered in the Hyderabad district.
7.8 In order to make programme a success, the local community participation is necessary. They can share in the development activity by providing piece of land for construction of health facility and labour, etc.
7.9 The Government has accorded the highest priority to preventive programmes such as EPI, AIDS Control Programme, Maleria Control Programme and Health Education. The diseases covered under the EPI programme are the major killers of children. Efforts are being made to cover most of infants under this programme. It is under execution since 1979. The major objectives of the project are as under:-
(i) Vaccination of 90% new born infants and 100% remaining 12-23 months children against Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Measles and Childhood Tuberculosis.
(ii) Vaccination of 70% pregnant ladies and 100% of child bearing age ladies with atleast two doses of Tetanus Toxoid in order to eliminate neo-natal tetanus.

CHAPTER-8
WATER SUPPLY & DRAINAGE/SEWERAGE
8.1 Potable Water Supply is a pre-requisite for the health of people. Lack of proper drinking Water Supply and Sanitation in rural as well urban areas has caused wide spread water borne diseases of which diarrhoea (among small children) happens to be a major killer. The diseases are transmitted by water and poor sanitation which deplete human energy resulting in sickness reducing thereby the productivity of the people. URBAN WATER SUPPLY:
8.2 All Urban localities in district Hyderabad are covered with water supply through a piped water system. Besides non-mechanised source of water supply like hand pumps/wells etc. are also used by the people. Hyderabad has at present 40 MGD water provided through various schemes while a number of twenty one water supply schemes have also been completed upto the year 1997-98 in other Urban areas of the district Hyderabad. Details of the completed water supply schemes (taluka wise) are given in table No.1.
URBAN DRAINAGE:
8.3 So far provision of urban drainage facility in Hyderabad district is concerned, all the urban localities are covered with drainage/sewage system or open pucca drains. The Drainage facilities are available in city's municipal areas, and town committees. A number of drainage schemes are also under implementation in Hyderabad city. In other urban areas of the district, a number of 12 Drainage Schemes have been completed upto the year 1997-98 while two schemes at estimated cost of Rs.47.145 million are on-going during the current year to meet the increased drainage requirements. Taluka wise details are intable No.1.
RURAL WATER SUPPLY:
8.4 The water supply facility in the rural areas of Sindh through a piped water system is to be provided according to the criteria which gives priority to "A rural settlement with population of 1000 and above preferably having brackish ground water". In Hyderabad district, 327 rural settlements having population upto 1000 are categorised into 3 types of settlements in descending order according to their size of population taking into account the quality of ground water.
8.5 Presently, out of 109 rural settlements having population 2000 and above, 50 settlements have been covered by the water supply facility. In second category which includes 80 settlements with population ranging between 1500 to 1999, 15 rural settlements have been facilitated by water supply schemes while in the third category out of 138 rural settlements 17 have been covered by such facility. Thus, out of total 327 rural settlements 82 settlements are covered with the required facility of water supply as reported upto June 1997. Taluka-wise details of uncovered settlements and their quality of water is given in table No.3.
8.6 For providing the water supply to uncovered rural settlements, 3 schemes are under implementation at the estimated cost of Rs.19.007 million during the current year i.e. 1997-98 leaving development gap of 242 uncovered villages. According to our criteria, 21 additional settlements with brackish water will require water supply schemes on priority basis. Details of completed, on-going schemes and number of brackish water settlements (taluka wise) are given at table No.2 and 3.
8.7 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed water supply schemes (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.5.
RURAL DRAINAGE:
8.8 Drainage system in the rural areas of Sindh under the prescribed criteria is provided for "A rural settlement with population 1000 & above preferably having water system". Presently, out of total 327 rural settlements, 50 settlements have been covered by the drainage facility. As per categorisation, out of, 109 rural settlements having population 2000 and above, 36 settlements are facilitated by the drainage facility. In second category, only 7 settlements out of 80 have been covered with drainage. Out of remaining 138 rural settlements, 7 settlements are having the facility of drainage system. Taluka wise detail of completed drainage schemes are given in table No.4. 8.9 For providing the Rural Drainage facility to the uncovered rural settlements another 10 schemes are under implementation at the estimated cost of Rs.67.430 million during the current year (i.e.1997-98), leaving a development gap of 267 rural settlements. According to criteria, 45 settlements with water supply schemes will require drainage facility on priority basis. The details of taluka wise completed, on-going schemes and uncovered settlements are given in table 2 & 4. 8.10 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed drainage schemes (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.6.
FACILITIES PROVIDED THROUGH RURAL DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT.

8.11 More than 86% population of rural Sindh resides in villages below 1000 population. Rural Development Department, Govt. of Sindh has been charged with the responsibility of providing Water Supply and Sanitation facilities in these settlements. Presently, it executes two Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Projects funded by the World Bank and UNICEF respectively. Through these projects, potable water is provided by installing hand pumps while Sanitation facilities are provided by constructing household latrines, and imparting hygiene Education in villages having population of upto one thousand souls.
8.12 In District Hyderabad there are a number of 2610 villages with population below 1000. Rural Development Department has so far provided 258 water supply Schemes through hand pumps in 218 villages and covered 0.047 million population. This leaves the development gap of a large number of small settlements i.e. 2392 villages where this facility is yet to be provided. Taluka wise details are given at table No.7.
8.13 The Rural Development Department has also helped in forming effective Village Organisations to function collectively and carry forward the participatory development approach. The concept is that by using both local and external resources and working together, the development of the villages can take place. In sanitation, households contribute more than the government share. The Rural Development Department component of this project has adopted bold initiatives in Community Participation and Co-ordination with other institutions (government and non-government) to bring a range of services to project villages.
8.14 The project has following components:-
1. Community Development. 2. Health Development. 3. Water Supply. 4. Sanitation. 5. District Co-ordination Committees. 6. Training. 7. Institutional Strengthening. 8. Documentation.
8.15 Under the two projects aided by World Bank and UNICEF, village Organisations are formed. The hand pumps and sanitation schemes are operated and maintained by the communities themselves.
POLICY ISSUES/OPTIONS:
8.16 In most of the urban areas the problem is more of inadequate and inefficient distribution rather than that of water supply availability. Attention should there fore be focused on a better distribution system alongwith an augmentation of suppers.
8.17 In case of sewerage and drainage, the situation is much worse and is aggravated by the expansion of water supply facilities. Provision of sewerage & drainage disposal facilities has therefore to match the programme of water supply.
8.18 Priority should be given to those areas where sweet ground water is not available at a reasonable depth and where water has to be fetched from distance.( Details are given in Table No.3) Similarly, Special consideration has to be given to areas where the rural population presently relies on surface water which is unfit for human consumption.
8.19 In areas where people have installed their own hand pump, priority should be given to sanitational disposal schemes. Piped water supply system is to be restricted to bigger village with a population ranging from 3000 to 5000. Hand pumps are being provided to smaller villages and initial delivery systems should be based on community stand-post and storage tanks.
8.20 Piped water-supply should be provided only at places where underground water is brackish, but here also the quality of material used and the workmanship must be improved. Frequent water leakages due to use of sub-standard pipes and defective implementation of schemes have created further problems through collection of water in the residential areas and damages of the buildings.
8.21 Water-supply through the implementation of water-supply schemes needs to be monitored regularly to ensure that the water is fit for human consumption. This is desirable specially because the water-supply schemes in Sindh do not provide for the filtration or chlorination process. Long-term effect of such water on health of the people needs to be studied.
8.22 Top priority be assigned to the sanitary disposal of sewage and waste-water which has collected in the form of stinking ponds in the vicinity of the towns and the larger rural settlements. The sewage so collected can neither be disposed off through land treatment (since it may cause soil sickness) nor it could be pumped into the flowing canals due to the fear of water pollution. The sewage ponds give rise to mosquito breeding and are likely to pollute the subsoil water which is the source of drinking water in this area. As such the top priority/attention should be given to solve this problem. The sewage could be treated in the oxidation ponds or in the digesting chambers. It would then be easy to dispose off the treated water into the flowing canals.
8.23 The Public Health Engineering Department (PHED)is responsible for planning, designing and construction of Water Supply Schemes in the province essentially in the larger villages having population of 1000 and above as per prescribed criteria. Sanitation/Drainage schemes are also provided by PHED in villages above 1000 persons where water supply schemes have been already provided. Details of such villages already covered/uncovered through drainage may be seen in table No.4.
8.24 Normally after completion of the schemes Public Health Engineering Department used to hand over the completed schemes to the local councils for operation and maintenance who under took maintenance task with great reluctance due to their unsound financial position, lack of technical know-how and doubts about the quality of construction work of completed schemes. As a result most of the completed schemes are poorly maintained by local councils and are either being partly run or closed down without any public utility.
8.25 Present Government has launched the Social Action Programme (SAP) in the Country which aims to improve the quality of life particularly in rural areas by providing basic amenities, such as, primary education, health care, safe drinking water and sanitation.
8.26 The Provincial Government has adopted a "unified policy" which imbibes the community to take operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Schemes on sustainable basis and as such has decided the following measures:-
(a) That all the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme will be dealt on Community basis.
(b) The Community will be motivated to form village development organisations (VDOS) which will closely associated with the implementation of the schemes at all stages and the completed schemes will be taken over by them for O/M and Management.
(c) In view of unsatisfactory financial conditions of most of the rural communities, it has been decided by the Present Government to provide cost of electricity and non routine maintenance, whereas "Community" will bear the cost of engaging operators/personnel and routine maintenance through recovery of user charges from the consumers.

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