Saturday, March 12, 2005

Shikarpur Economic Profile

SINDH REGIONAL PLAN ORGANISATION

DRAFTDISTRICT DEVELOPMENT PROFILE/PLANFOR DISTRICT SHIKARPUR1998

FEBRUARY, 2000 DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT PROFILE/PLAN SHIKARPUR 1998
CONTENT
Chapter Title Page No.
District Map I District at Glance 1-3
Chapter-1 Geographical Characteristics 4 - 5 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Location 1.3 Topography-(Tract/Zone) 1.4 Climate 1.5 Administrative set up
Chapter-2 Demographic Characteristics 6 - 9
2.1 Population 1998 2.2 Settlement pattern (size) urban/rural. - Statistical Tables ....................... 8 - 9
Chapter-3 Agriculture 10 - 34
3.1 Land Utilization ................... 11 3.2 Crop Position ...................... 12 3.2.1 Rice ............................... 12 3.2.2 Wheat .............................. 13 3.2.3 Minor Crops ........................ 13 3.3 Fertilizer ......................... 14 3.4 Improved Seed ..................... 15 3.5 Pesticides ......................... 16 3.6 Livestock .......................... 17 3.7 Veterinary Institution ............. 18 3.8 Inland Fisheries ................... 19 3.9 Forest ............................. 20 3.10 Food Storage ....................... 22 -- Statistical Tables ................. 23 - 34

Chapter-3-A Village Electriication 35

Chapter-4 Manufacturing 36 - 40
4.1 Existing Manufacturing 4.2 Industrial Small Scale Units 4.3 District potentials. - Statistical Tables ....................... 38 - 40
Chapter-5 Road Net work (Normal/F.T.M) 41 - 46
5.1 Existing Situation 5.2 Road Standards 5.3 Analysis 5.4 Development Gaps - Statistical Tables ....................... 45 - 46
Chapter-6 Educations 47 - 55
6.1 Primary Education 6.2 Secondary Education 6.3 High Secondary Education 6.3 College Education 6.4 Technical/Commercial/Vocational Education 6.5 Professional Education 6.6 Medical Education 6.7 Establishment of General University 6.8 Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education - Statistical Tables ....................... 53 - 55
Chapter-7 Health 56 - 72
7.1 Existing Position of Health alongwith development gap. - Statistical Tables ....................... 59 - 72
Chapter-8 Water Supply & Drainage/ 73 - 87 Sewerage
8.1 Urban Water Supply 8.2 Urban Drainage 8.3 Rural Water Supply 8.4 Rural Drainage 8.5 Facilities provided through Rural Development Department. 8.6 Policy Issues/Options. - Statistical Tables ........................ 81 - 87 DISTRICT AT GLANCEGENERAL INFORMATIONDISTRICT SHIKARPUR
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------
1. ADMINISTRATIVE SETUP
Sub-Division Nos. 2 Talukas " 4 Union Councils " 33 Market Committee " - Deh " 245 Villages/Settlements " 901 Metropolitan/Municipal Corp: " - Municipal Committees " 1 Town Committees " 6 2. AREA Sq.kms. 2841
3. DEMOGRAPHY -
Population (Total) Nos. 8,65,893 Male " 4,47,877 Female " 4,18,016
Rural " 6,58,814 Male " 3,41,060 Female " 3,17,754
Urban " 2,07,079 Male " 1,06,817 Female " 1,00,262
Population Density Per sq.km. 305
4. AGRICULTURE (MAJOR CROPS)
Area Hectare
Cotton " 17 Rice " 1,07,729 Wheat " 31,361 Sugarcane " 263 Jawar " 893 Barley " - Rape Seed & Mustered " 9376 Gram " -
Production
Cotton Bales 17 Rice M.Tons 3,16,639 Wheat " 51,457 Sugarcane " 9,047 Jawar " 371 Barley " - Rape Seed & Mustered " 6,951 Gram " -
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------ 5. INDUSTRIAL SETUP
Sugar Factories Nos. - Cotton Ginning Factories " 1 Rice Mills " 32 Oil Mills " 1 Ice Factories " - Others " 3
6. ENERGY
Villages Electrified(200 & above) Nos. 431 Development Gap (200 & above) " 470
7. COMMUNICATION: Kms. 979
Mettled Road " 812
Un-Mettled Road (Katcha) " 167
8. EDUCATION:
Primary Schools Nos. 1,268
a) Male " 1,033 b) Female " 235
Middle Schools " 68
a) Male " 42 b) Female " 26
High Schools " 52
a) Male " 41 b) Female " 11
9. HEALTH INSTITUTIONS:
Civil Hospital/Other Major Nos. 3 Hospitals
Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals " 2
Rural Health Centres " 5
Basic Health Units " 31
Dispensaries (Govt.) " 10
(2)
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------

10. UTILITIES:
Rural Water Supply Schemes Nos. 18 (Completed)
Rural W/S Coverage 1000+ " 18 Population Settlements
Development Gap* " 163
Rural Drainage Scheme (Completed) " 57
Rural Drainage (Coverage) 1000+ " 57
Development Gap (1000) Settlement " 124


















(3) CHAPTER-1
GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1.1 Shikarpur district takes its name from its headquarters town. Shikarpur was installed as a new district by bifurcating the Sukkur district after 1972 census and consists of the whole of Shikarpur and Garhi Yasin Talukas and Lakhi Bagarji and Mohammed Bagh supervisory Tapedar Circles of Sukkur Taluka of Sukkur District.
LOCATION:
1.2 The district lies from 27-38' to 28-10' north latitudes and 68-16' to 69-05' east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by Jacobabad district, in the east by Sukkur district in the south by Khairpur and Larkana districts and in the west by Jacobabad District.
TOPOGRAPHY:
1.3 Shikarpur district is a plain formed by the river Indus. There are no mountains or hills formations in Shikarpur district. The land gently slopes from north west to south east. The general elevation of the land surface varies from about 50 to 100 meters above sea level. CLIMATE:
1.4 The district witnesses extremes of climate. The summer season commences from April and continues till October. May, June and July are the hottest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this period are about 42c and 28c respectively. The months of August and September become stuffy and suffocating. The mean maximum and minimum temperature during the winter months of December, January and February is about 24c and 9c respectively.
ADMINISTRATIVE SET UP:
1.5 District Shikarpur consists of two sub-divisions and four talukas spread over 245 Dehs. Thirteen Dehs house more than five thousand population and 86 Dehs house between one to two thousand population each, and remaining dehs possess less than one thousand population. There are seven urban localities (one municipal committee and six town committees) and 33 Union Councils in the district.

CHAPTER- 2
DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
2.1 The Shikarpur District is spread over 2841 sq.km., that is, 2.02% of the total geographical area of Sindh, but its share in total Population in 1998 accounted for 865893 souls or 2.89% of the provincial population. It increased by 39.76% during 1981-98 intercensal period a span of 17 years at an average annual growth rate of 1.99%. In accordance with the land area of Shikarpur district i.e. 2841 sq. kms. there is density of 305 persons per sq. km. as compared to 218 persons per sq. km. in 1981. Out of its total population 207079 persons or 24% are settled in urban areas and remaining 658814 persons or 76% are located in rural areas. The sex ratio (male per 100 females) is worked out at 107; this ratio is also constituted of 107 males for rural and urban areas respectively. Town-wise urban population is depicted in table No.I. According to 1998 population census, there are total 1,52,312 households in Shikarpur district comprising of 8,65,893 persons thus giving an average size of six persons per household. The taluka wise population of 1998 is depicted in table No.II.
SETTLEMENT PATTERN:
2.2 There are 901 rural settlements having population 200-1000 of which 181 are categorized as settlements of population with 1000+ souls. By definition settlement is defined as "Place of human habitation from one isolated house to a big town or a city with certain identified location and name" on other hand the village as per definition of Board of Revenue Sindh, is defined as "Place of human habitation having atleast ten houses".
2.3 The village in population terms therefore could be defined as a place of human habitation having population of about 70-100 persons (7-10 household size) and above (but not more than 5000) with certain identified location and name. The Rural settlement pattern (200 and above) according to survey conducted by Sindh Bureau of Statistics during 1995 are depicted below:
TABLE "A"-----------------------------------------------------------------Taluka Settlement having Population 200-499 500-599 1000+ Total-----------------------------------------------------------------Shikarpur 108 51 28 181Lakhi 101 58 70 229Garhi Yasin 136 93 61 290Khanpur 124 49 22 195-----------------------------------------------------------------Total: 469 251 181 901-----------------------------------------------------------------
Source:- Sindh Bureau of Statistics.
2.4 The above table reveals that number of settlements having 200-499 constitute 52% of the total settlements of 200-1000. The rural settlements having population of 200+ may be considered as a cut off point and need special attention by providing basic socio-economic facility School/Electricity. The rural settlements less than 500 and more than 200 (200-499) clearly qualify for a mosque school and provision of electricity. The rural settlements with population less than 1000 (500-999) may be considered for provision of education, electricity/pucca road facility and the rural settlements with population 1000 and above should be considered for all possible civic amenities to convert them into sub urban localities and to attract surrounding scattered hamlets to voluntary migration. CHAPTER 3
AGRICULTURE SECTOR
Pakistan's economy has undergone considerable diversification over the years yet the agriculture sector still constitutes its back-bone. With its present contribution to GDP at 24.87 percent, Agriculture accounts for half of the total employed labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings while it serves as the base sector for the country's major industries like textiles and sugar.
The economic development of Sindh is largely dependent on the progress and growth of Agriculture sector. Sindh province contributes significantly towards over all national agriculture with 26% of the cultivated area, 17% of the cropped area and 16% of the irrigated area, 19% of the total forest area, 43% of the total production of rice, 25% of cotton, 14% wheat, 30% sugar cane, 22% other food grains, 59% of marine fish, 60% of inland fish and 28% of the live stock production originates in Sindh. Lower productivity levels per hectare continue to be problem No. 1 of crop production. Over the last ten years period, most insignificant increases are noticeable in yield of major crops over several years in view of efforts undertaken to eradicate water-logging and Salinity, provision of new seed varieties, increased use of fertilizer, pesticides, provision of agriculture extension services and on-farm water management practice and close co-ordination among farmers and agricultural field staff. Achievements of self sufficiency in major crop production must, therefore, address to the key issue bottlenecks. The enhancement of yields in the shortest possible time needs to be taken by reviewing existing programme by involving farming community in co-operative manners reducing reliance on extension staff.
3.1 LAND UTILIZATION.
The pattern of land use in a region determines crop production. Soil & climate play an important role in the management of cropping pattern of a region. Crop area used for food and cash crops can be taken as an index of the type of land system and the economic use for these crops. Land use data for latest five years reveals that the reported area in Shikarpur district remained unchanged except during the year 1995-96 where it was declined by 0.2 thousand hectares. However, not all of this area is cultivable, 30.9% was reported "uncultivable" though its share was 30.4% in 1993-94.
The share of cultivated area (in the area reported) slightly decreased from 69.6% in 1993-94 to about 69.1% in 1997-98. It, however, is still much higher as compared to over all Sindh. Besides, it reflected higher cropping intensities as compared to Sindh. From the data given in table No.1, though the cropping intensities increased somewhat since last many years, but an acre of land in Shikarpur district is not being cropped fully even once in a year. However, the cropped area increased from 166.7 thousand hectares in 1993-94 to 175.6 thousand hectares in 1997-98 with 89.5% cropping intensity.
The cropped area increased by about 5.6% but the cultivated area slightly decreased by 0.8% during the period of five years. A small part of the area about 12.4% is being used for grazing or forest and remaining land is lying unused due to unfavourable condition or lack of irrigation water.
It is noted that the pressure of total rural population on cultivated area has increased considerably since last many years. The ratio of cultivated area per person decreased from 0.29 in 1981 to 0.23 in 1997.
3.2 CROP POSITION.
There are two main crop seasons; "Kharif" and "Rabi" in Shikarpur District. The Kharif season starts from April-May and ends in October-November while the Rabi starts from November-December and ends in April-May. However, due to regional variation in temperature, several factors i.e varieties, availability of water, soil texture, etc. determine the crop pattern, sowing and harvesting time. The Crops are further categorized into major and minor crops. Rice, Wheat and Sugar-cane are the major crops of the district; Mattar, Rapeseed & Mustard, Barley, Onion, Linseed and Jowar fall in the category of minor crops.
3.2.1 RICE:
Rice is an important food as well as highly valued cash crop that earns substantial foreign exchange for the country. Besides, it is also a staple food crop of the people of Shikarpur district. Thus it occupies the majority of cultivated land under rice. Its share in total cropped area was recorded at 61.3%. Despite the relative price having favoured the high yielding varieties, farmers traditionally grow the IRRI, and other varieties in district Shikarpur.
The area under rice increased by 7.7% from 100.0 thousand hectares in 1996-97 to 107.7 thousand hectares in 1997-98 & over a period of five years. On the contrary, the production of rice went down 1.1% from 320.1 thousand tonnes to 316.6 thousand tonnes. Similarly yield per hectare also decreased by 7.6% from 3181 kgs. per hectare to 2939 kgs. per hectare over the period of last five year.(Table No.2)
3.2.2 WHEAT.
The area and production of wheat for the year 1997-98 were estimated at 31.4 thousand hectares and 51.5 thousand tonnes respectively. The yield, however, was recorded at 1641 kgs/ hectares. The area under wheat decreased by 1.9% during the year 1994-95. but, it recovered by 7.7% in the next year. The production situation generally remained satisfactorily over the last five years and it grew at the rate of 7.3% due to favourable whether condition at sowing times (Table No.2).
3.2.3 MINOR CROPS:
The information available in table No.3 depicts that Matter, Rape seed & Mustard, Barely, Onion, Linseed and Jawar were the minor crops, which contributed the share of 17.6%, 5.3%, 1.6%, 0.8%, 0.6% and 0.2% in the total cropped area of the district Shikarpur respectively during the year 1997-98.
3.3 FERTILIZER:
Fertilizer is one of the major input which can enhance the crop production. The timely application and use of correct doze is an essential factor for increasing crop yields. Its contribution towards increased crop production is upto 50%.
Mostly, the soils of Shikarpur district are fertile but they are deficit in nitrogenous and phosphatic nutrients. Nitrogen is very essential for accelerating plant vigour producing large number of flowers, number of sound seeds per capsule and their proper size. It increases protein content of the seed as well. Phosphorous contributes in photosynthetic activities of plants, formation of seed, fibre and proper development of root system.
The recommended dozes of nitrogenous, phosphatic & potassium fertilizer varies from crop to crop. Other factors like fertility of soil, topography, availability of water, use of quality seed, proper preparation of land, etc. also contribute towards crop production.
The information available in table No.4 on off-take of fertilizer for the period from 1993-94 to 1997-98 depicts that it grew at the rate of 2.6% per annum in Shikarpur district. The total off-take of fertilizer (N+P+K) in Shikarpur district in both the Kharif and Rabi seasons of 1994-95 was 14.1 thousand nutrients tonnes which was 10.5% higher than the corresponding period of the last year. Moreover, the figures show a remarkable increase of 35.9% in off-take of fertilizer during the year 1997-98 as compared to last year where it was 10.8 thousand M.tonnes.
It is estimated that off-take of fertilizer in Shikarpur district was 2.5% of the total off-take in Sindh.
3.4 IMPROVED SEED:
Quality of seed is a basic requirement for increasing the production and productivity of the crop. It is a low cost input but has the potential to increase crop yield on an average by 20% as compared to non-certified seeds.
It is reported that sale of certified seeds has been declining since many years. The figures indicate in table No.5 that the sale of wheat and paddy certified seeds drastically decreased by 71.3%, and 87.8% respectively over the period of lat five years. The sale of wheat certified seed was recorded at 776 thousand kg. mds. at the cost of Rs.357.0 thousand during the year 1997-98 which was 128% lesser than the preceding year. It is estimated that 313 hectares of wheat crop were cultivated under certified seed which was only 1.0% of the total cropped area under wheat in Shikarpur district.
The distribution of improved paddy seed in Shikarpur district was estimated at 501 kg. mds. with a total outlays of Rs.187.9 thousand during the year 1997-98. Its share to the total cropped area under paddy in Shikarpur was 0.1%.
The most farmers use their own farm seed. Vast majority have little access for quality control as the public agencies and market agencies do not provide more than 3 to 17 percent of good and certified seed for these crops. The less use of improved seed is one of the most serious factor for obtaining low yields.
3.5 Pesticides.
Pesticides play major role in protecting cops from the attack of pest and disease. It is estimated that crop losses, during the growth season and after harvesting, caused by insects & pests are considerably high to the extent of 25%. Many of these losses are avoidable, if proper preventive and curative measures are taken. Plant protection measures, dependent mainly on pesticides, are grossly inadequate even for the four leading crops. The most preferred use of plant protection measures on crops are now the ground sprays both as preventive and curative measures.
Increase in cropping intensities and cultivation pattern help in the development of permanent flora for retaining the sufficient quantity of seed in soil. The application of tillage operation including hand labour for control of weeds are not traditionally practised due to shortage of labour and its high costs. Weedicides, are not mostly used; however, only insignificant progressive farmers are applying weedicides in wheat crop.
It is reported in table No.6 that the area of 876 hectares under wheat crops was treated with 1.84 metric tonnes weedicide for the control of weeds which covered only 8.8% of the total area under wheat in Shikarpur district in 1997-98.
The latest information available on use of pesticides indicates that the plant protection measures were carried out over an area of 32.9 thousand hectares under rice crop which utilized the pesticide of 32.9 metric tonnes. The coverage was only 30.5% of the total area cultivated under rice in district Shikarpur.
3.6 Live Stock:
Live Stock is one of the major sub-sector of Agriculture and back bone of our economy. It contributes roughly one third in the total share of Agriculture GDP. Its main by-products including hides and skins have substantial potential as semi-finished products. A substantial growth in Livestock products such as milk, meat, beef, mutton, poultry and eggs have been noticed since many years.
It has been estimated that over three - fourths of the farm power comes from animals, and they are used for most of the farm operations. Bullocks provide the draft power on farm and in transport around the villages.
Most farmers traditionally keep a few heads of livestock ranging from bullocks for draft to buffaloes or cattle for milk and poultry for eggs & meat. There is a need for increasing the heads of live stock to supplement income by selling products. Production for market even at the expense of consumption at home has become quite common in many areas of Sindh. There are pockets of organised live stock farming, such as cattle farms (or colonies) and poultry farms, located mainly in the urban areas. Most other units are of small size and not well kept.
As per live stock census 1996, the population of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in Shikarpur district were recorded at 221841, 279676, 142154 and 168243 respectively. The population of live stock grew by 4.4% cattle, 5.5% buffaloes, 10.8% sheep and 2.2% goats over the last live stock census enumerated in 1986.(Table No.7).
Meat, hair, hides, skins and wool are the other major products of live stock. Beef is the most important source of meat. But most of this beef is produced from discarded old bullocks, milch cattle and buffaloes, and buffalo calves. Mutton comes next in the market place, and it is provided by a variety of goats and sheep.
During the year 1997-98 it was reported that 54051 animals were slaughtered in the Shikarpur district. Out of the total slaughtered animals, 11569 cattle, 11516 buffaloes, 15208 sheep and 25758 goats were slaughtered. It was estimated that 5.2% cattle, 4.19% buffaloes, 10.7% sheep and 15.3% goats were slaughtered out of the total live stock population in 1997-98. It was observed that slaughtering of animals was decreased by 9.4% buffaloes, 27.6% sheep and 37.7% goats.( Table No.8)
In order to meet the requirements of meat and milk, live stock farming seems to be necessary in joint venture of public/private sector or helping private sector in importing the livestock for establishing live stock farms through loans on easy terms & conditions. The Shikarpur district posses vast potential for establishing livestock farming in the district.
3.7 Veterinary Institution.
The under nourishment, disease and internal parasites, act as a serious constraint on animal production. The animal have to be guarded against ill health, and preventive/curative measures are required to be taken regularly. The veterinary hospitals, dispensaries and centres provide preventive and curative services for disease control for live stock.
Table No.9 depicts that in Shikarpur district 4 veterinary hospitals, 5 dispensaries and 22 veterinary centres were functioning during the year 1997-98. In all, 31 veterinary institutions were available to provide health coverage and treatment facilities to the entire livestock of the district. The total number of 866 veterinary Institutions were established in the Province of Sindh which translated into the health care ratio of one veterinary Institution for 2628 live stock. It is worked out that Shikarpur district had 3.6% of the total veterinary Institutions in Sindh.
Institution Sindh Shikarpur %age Share Hospital 64 4 6.3% Dispensaries 115 5 4.3% Centres 687 22 3.2% Total 866 31 3.6%
The establishment of veterinary hospitals/centres at district, tehsil and taluka level has hardly contributed towards live stock disease control. Though expansion of live stock dispensaries and centres in the rural area has partially been successful in disease control, there is a dire need for diversification of veterinary health institutions from cities to rural areas.
The existing position indicates that 202033 animals were treated, and 167275 animals were vaccinated for the control of various diseases in veterinary institutions thereby representing 24.9% of curative and 20.6% of preventive coverage over the total live stock population in Shikarpur district.
3.8 Inland Fisheries: For Inland fishing, main economic activity is practised in rivers, lacks and ponds, etc. In Sindh province, Fish not only supplements protein deficiency of food but also earns foreign exchange for the country. Fisheries contributes to both the national income and export earnings.
Inland fish production has been increasing over the years. In Shikarpur district, the inland fish production registered an increase of 13.4% to 3680 m.tonnes in 1997 over the preceding year. It is estimated that Shikarpur district contributes 4.0% of total 91903 m.tonnes inland fish production of Sindh. It is reported that 120 fishermen were engaged full time in the fisheries sector whereas 45 fishermen contributed their service for part time during the year 1997. Total number of boats used for the catchment of fish were 38. Of these, 47% boats were sail type and 53% boats were row type.(Table No.10).
Per capita consumption of inland fish in the province of Sindh is very low i.e. 3.1 kg only. Keeping in view of the high rate of population growth, production from land resources will not be able to keep up with the population increase. Protein deficiency could become serious problem in near future. In order to solve this, fish production needs proper attention to exploit the abundant resources to meet the protein needs of a growing population.
3.9 Forest:
Forests are not only necessary for habitation of livestock population but also instrumental in improving environmental quality and provide dependable source for meeting domestic energy requirements of fuel wood. Besides, it helps in conservation of soils, improve environment by controlling pollution, cause rainfall and climatic changes, supplement source of energy and stabilize gas and oil prices. The forestry programme in Sindh envisages management of forest on commercial basis in the Riverine forests, irrigation plantation forests, mangrove forests, development of Social Forestry, Agriculture, Coconut and Range lands.
Total forest area in Sindh is 1161 thousand hectares or 8.3% of the Sindh province area which is far below the desired ratio of 20 to 30 percent considered necessary for balanced ecology. The per capita forest area being 0.039 hectare in Sindh province or 0.032 hectares in the country was also quite low as compared to the world average of about 1.0 hectare.
In Shikarpur District, the forest area is spread over 24.0 thousand hectares which is 2.1% of the total area under forest in Sindh in the year 1997-98. Shikarpur district produced 20.0 thousand cubic feet timber wood and 140.9 thousand cft. fire wood at the value of Rs.228.5 thousand which contributed about 1.3% of the total value of forest Timber & Fire wood in Sindh in 1997-98.(Table No.11)
The forest out put was decreased by Rs.430.1 thousand from Rs.3907.00 thousand in 1996-97 to Rs.3476.9 thousand in 1997-98 representing a decline of 11.0% in terms of value in Shikarpur district.
In order to meet the standard ratio of 20-30% land as forest there is a need to bring more area of 32.8 to 61.2 thousand hectares under forest whereas in fact there is a substantial potential of growing agro-forest in Shikarpur .
Progress in increasing forest area has been limited due to financial and social constraints. The only need to increase the forest wealth in the province of Sindh as well as in country is to extensively grow trees on farm lands. In order to involve farming community in tree growing activity, social forestry programmes have been launched through-out in the country with attractive incentives in the form of subsidized supply of planting stock, partial payment of planting cost, free protection of planted areas for a limited period of time and fair return to the farmers. The tree plantation on katcha/pucca road/canal path and in Government offices, health/education institution shall continue to be encouraged.
3.10 Food Storage: Maintenance of food grain reserves is necessary to meet the off season requirements and to stabilize the prices. To achieve this end, storage facilities are required by the producers as well as by marketers, processors and the government. The farmer needs storage in order to sell when prices are favourable and reduce seasonal fluctuations in prices. The government requires stocks to carry out the country through bad years. Government role as the distributary agency of essential items necessitates enlargement of storage facilities.
The main thrust of government storage policy is to make available proper storage facilities, bring improvement in grain handling system & reduce grain losses to ensure the supply of adequate and good quality of food grains to the consumers. Food storage in public sector were provided for wheat, rice & cotton.
As a result of significant increase in domestic production and future needs of storage for important agricultural commodities and inputs, the demand for increase in storage capacity has become acute.
As per information, the total storage capacity of 746120 metric tonnes was available with government of Sindh. Of these, 95% godown were owned by food department. Additionally, 0.4% H.type storage accommodation was constructed through annual development programme while 4.6% storage facility was provided at an open plinth. Shikarpur district had H.type storage accommodation with capacity of 6000 metric tonnes. CHAPTER 3-A
VILLAGE ELECTRIFICATION.
Electricity is essential for urban/rural development in all sectors of economy and in all walks of life. Provision of electricity to rural people is, in other words, a source of happiness and prosperity to rural masses. Generally electricity in rural areas is provided in rural settlements with population of 200 and above. WAPDA is the sole authority to electrify villages under different programmes.
As per population census of 1998, in district Shikarpur, there were 901 rural settlements with population 200 and above. WAPDA has so far electrified 431 villages. There are still 470 villages which need to be electrified.
CHAPTER-4
MANUFACTURING
EXISTING MANUFACTURING UNITS (MEDIUM & LARGE SCALE).
4.1 The manufacturing establishments in district Shikarpur are reported as 35 units during the latest census of manufacturing Industries (CMI) 1997. By comparing with the previous census that took place in 1990-91, under which 27 units were reported, it shows that 8 units have been closed. The leading order of the manufacturing groups during 1997-98 is given below:
S.No. Group No.of Units functioning---- ----- -----------
1. Textile 12. Rice Mills 323. Beverage 14. Oil Mill 1 ------------ 35 ------------
4.2 The detailed position of above mentioned Textile units, Rice Mills, Beverage and Oil Mill. (Location wise) is given as follows:
Taluka Shikarpur.
4.3 In this taluka, there are 18 establishments under various categories reported during the census of manufacturing industries (CMI) 1997-98 against the total number of 35 units for the whole district.
Taluka Ghari Yaseen.4.4 In this taluka, there are 14 mills reported during the last census.
INDUSTRIES IN REST OF DISTRICT:
4.5 In the rest of District Shikarpur, there are only 3 Rice Mills reported in taluka Khanpur while taluka Lakhi no Industries have been reported during the census.
INDUSTRIAL ESTATES (SMALL SCALE) IN Shikarpur.
4.6 An Industrial Estate is established under Sindh Small Industries Corporation in Shikarpur district which is located in District Headquarters Shikarpur. There are 7 Small Industrial Units functioning as self-employment schemes and 18 units are functioning under Small Industrial Estates. Besides, two projects with the capacity of 232 employment are under process in the district (Detail is given in table -4.2). The detail of Industrial groups are as under: a) Under self Employment Schemes:
i. Rice Mills 2 ii. Ice Factories 2 iii. Vegetable Ghee 2 iv. Others 1
------- 7 ------- b) Under Small Industrial Estates:
i. Vegetable Ghee 3 ii. Ice Factory 1 iii. Building Material 1 M.P.G.(R.C.C. Pipe) iv. Steel Engineering 1 v. Others 12 --------- 18 --------- CHAPTER-5
ROAD NETWORK
5.1 Road is vehicle for economic development and social change. It is used as an Indicator of Development. Efficient road network not only develops a quick and efficient transportation system but also opens up new area hitherto remained closed. It brings about social integration among rural and urban sectors and greatly assists in accessibility to basic needs i.e. schools, hospitals, etc. It bring rural areas in constant touch with urban segment of society and creates better understanding necessary for social change and political awakening.
EXISTING ROAD NETWORK.
5.2 The existing road network in Shikarpur district is fairly good. The district headquarter of Shikarpur is connected with its taluka headquarters of Khanpur, Garhi Yasin and Lakhi through metalled roads.
5.3 Among the means of transportation, buses, motor cars, Jeeps, vans, loading trucks, mini trucks, bullock carts and donkey carts are used. Most of the commercial goods are transported by loading trucks, vans and by railways. Important road links in Shikarpur district are given as under:-
1) Road from Shikarpur- Jacobabad via Sultan kot and Hamayoon. 2) Road from Shikarpur to Kandhkot via Khanpur. 3) Road from Shikarpur to Larkana via Garhi Yasin and Dakhan. 4) Road from Garhi Yasin to Lakhi. 5) Road from Shikarpur to Sukkur via Lakhi.
5.4 Upto June, 1998, there were 812 kms. metalled and 166.99 kms. unmetalled roads. The over all position (by type of roads) is given as follows:-
ABSTRACT OF ROAD MILEAGE (K.M.) OF DISTRICT SHIKARPUR AS ON 30-06-1998
S.NO. ITEMS METALLED KATCHA TOTAL ROAD IN ROAD IN LENGTH KM. KM. IN KM.----- ----------------- -------- ------- ------
i. Provincial Roads 124.71 -- 124.71ii. Rural Roads 332.11 44.44 376.55iii. Farm to Market Road 355.18 122.55 477.73
---------------------------- Grand Total:- 812.00 166.99 978.99 ----------------------------
Details of above roads (Taluka-wise) are given in Table No.1.
Railway.
5.6 Shikarpur is connected through railway line with Jacobabad in the North Larkana in the south west and Sukkur in the south east.
ROAD STANDARDS:
5.7 For identifying the development gaps there are certain standards about adequacy of roads which are as under:
i) 0.50 km. of Pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographical area. ii) Road density based on cultivable area. (2.km. per 1 sq.km.) iii) Road density based on cropped area.(1.km. per 1.sq.km.) iv) Road network connecting settlements of 1000+ and 500+ population. v) Road length per 10,000 population. vi) Movement of persons goods and services.
5.8 The available international standard related to agriculture postulates that there should be atleast 2 km. of road for every sq.km. of cultivable area. Modification of this standard appears necessary from two angles: Firstly, this standard includes katcha roads as well whereas we would like to evolve a standard in terms of metalled road only. Secondly, the standard is related to cultivable area which is invariably greater than cropped area. The cropped area standard of 1 km. of metalled road per sq.km. of cropped area is also misleading. As in irrigated area, it must be much higher than in deserted/hilltorian areas. However, the settlements located in unirrigated zone also require special attention and connecting of 1000+ & 500+ villages appears appealing except some settlements located in unproductive zones (desert, hill tracts) the settlements lying therein with population 1000+ should at least be connected.
5.9 Under the population standard, urban settlements with large population would get more roads. However, the data of movement of persons, goods and services is not easily available.
5.10 Under these circumstances, the standard based on geographical area is most suited i.e. (0.5 km. of pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographical area).
DEVELOPMENT GAP:5.11 Super imposing the chosen/agreed standard of 0.5 km. of metalled Road for one sq. km. of geographical area, we need a total of 1420.50 kms. of metalled road, with the existing road length pitched at 812.0 kms. additional road length of 608.5 km. as per (development gap) is required to be constructed to meet the required standard in District Nawabshah. Details are given at Table No.2.
ANALYSIS.
5.12 A simple taluka wise analysis of the road situation in the district is given in Table No.2. The table shows pucca road densities in terms of K.M. per sq.km of geographical area wherein it is evident that Garhi Yasin taluka is by far the most back ward taluka in so far as pucca road facility is concerned. The pucca road density for this taluka works out as 0.26 K.M per sq.km of geographical area as compared to the respective figures of 0.28 K.M for the district.
5.13 According to High ways Department's road statistics Sindh Province had a total of 20781.45 Km of pucca road upto June 1998. Out of this, 812 kms. (3.90%) were in Shikarpur District which compares well with its population share of 3.49%. Comparative position of road length and densities in the geographical areas of various districts may be seen in Table No.3. CHAPTER-6
EDUCATION SECTOR
The Majority of Schools in the District belonging to Government are functioning under the supervision of District Education Officer (Male/Female). Education is basic right of the people, therefore Primary Education for Children male/Female is mandatory and it is provided free of cost in the province of Sindh. The formal Educational structure in Sindh is divided into four main streams: the first level known as primary refers to Grade I-V for age of school going population 5-9 years, 2nd stage includes middle secondary, elementary and higher secondary. The third stream is called college education which consists of higher education. After completion of the college education, a candidate is awarded Bachelor degree in Arts/Commerce or Science. Duration of post secondary education varies in Technical and Professional fields; the Poly Technic Institutes offer four years B. Tech course. A Bachelor degree in medicines requires five years education. Similarly, Bachelor degree courses in Engineering, Agriculture and Veterinary medicines are awarded of four years duration after the intermediate examination.
An additional two years after the bachelor degree are required to acquire a master degree in Arts/Commerce or Science leading to award of Ph.D degree which may require two or three more years after the completion of master degree course.
6.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION:
In the existing Primary Schools network during 1997-98 in Shikarpur, there were total 1268 schools including mosque schools, out of which 1174 schools were located in rural areas and 94 schools in urban areas, urban schools of total 94 were further bifurcated into 49 male and 45 female schools. Total primary enrolment of 74023 souls was noted (51420 male and 22603 female) in the district, 3442 teaching staff was engaged in providing primary education including 600 female teachers.
Teacher student ratio worked out on the basis of information received from the Education Department stands at 1:20, 1:18 and 1:24 for male, female and both sexes respectively.
The participation rate at primary level calculated on the basis of population projection stands at 19% for male and 30% for female; over-all participation is worked out to 22%.
In Shikarpur District, there were 150 closed/on paper Primary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 581 boys and 156 girls schools were lacking toilets. 634 schools were without drinking water facility. 774 Primary schools including 135 girls schools are without boundary wall. 352 schools are functioning either in rental building or are shelterless. 410 schools require repair, where as 78 schools were working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
The Social Action programme SAP has taken care of the idea by enhancing female enrolments and developed following criteria which will boost up the female primary education.
CRITERIA FOR RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOLS (2 ROOM)
(a) The first school in a area shall be established as mixed school. The Second School in the same areas shall be girls school. (b) No existing primary school within the range of 1.5 km. (c) The age group population of 5-9 years must be 100.
For universalization of primary education there is need of opening new schools which will provide additional enrolment resulting in increase of literacy rate. There is need of reactivation of closed schools. And also there is need of resorting the existing enrolment for which reconstruction/improvement in existing schools is required.
To achieve the goal following are the recommendations.
A. REACTIVATION OF CLOSED PRIMARY SCHOOLS:
1. Stoppage of transfer/deputation of teacher from village schools to urban area or place of their choice.
2. The closed schools located at remote places/or in a settlements below criteria and having no school building may officially be declared as closed and a new school may be established at a deserving rural settlement that falls on the population criteria etc.
3. In future, while appointing primary school teachers (male/female), preference may be given to local area teachers. Due to this at least "non local teachers" will not be the reason for closure of the schools.
B. CONSOLIDATION OF EXISTING PRIMARY SCHOOLS: 1. Buildings may only be provided to already established schools functioning in a temporary accommodation running under trees in Jhugis or rented building and having atleast enrolment of 60 children.
2. Furniture/Electricity/Water/Toilet/Latrine facility may be provided to such an established schools that have suitable building and having no such facilities in the first instance.
3. Re-adjustment of existing schools buildings may be done through administrative steps. A simple executive order issued for introduction of double shift programme in urban/rural locations will change the scenario and will also save the anticipated development expenditure to be incurred on provision of separate building facility for boys & girls.
4. The boys school buildings located in rural settlements with 1000 and above population can be provided with additional class rooms if required in order to make the school five roomed.
C. OPENING OF NEW MOSQUE/PRIMARY SCHOOLS:
1. Instead of opening new primary schools for boys (alongwith construction of a new building) in rural settlements of 500-999, following strategy is proposed to be adopted:
a) In case of a building available for girls school, 2 shifts approach may be adopted. This will result in full utilization of the available school buildings.
b) Only mosque schools may be opened, where there is a gap in rural settlements below 500 population at the initial stage. After three years the mosque schools that attain an enrolment of 50 or more, (based on evaluation) may be converted into a primary school. The building may be provided to such school where there is no school building already available in the village.
3. No new building may be provided where the schools can run in shifts in the existing buildings of a primary school for boys or girls. This type of administrative action will reduce the development cost to be incurred on construction of new buildings.
D. CO-EDUCATION:
In urban area, co-education at primary level may be introduced and female teacher may be appointed/posted in primary schools.
6.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION:
Secondary education consists of middle/high schools. In its existing position there were 68 middle schools (42 male and 26 female) in district Shikarpur with enrolment of 3679 and 367 teachers as per information available for 97-98.
As regards the high schools, there were 50 high schools (40 for male and 10 for female) in the district during 1997-98. There were working 1223 teachers to coupe with the enrolment of 21599.
In Shikarpur District, there were 15 closed/on paper Secondary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 21 boys and 9 girls schools were lacking toilets. 35 schools were without drinking water facility. 38 Secondary schools including 11 girls schools are without boundary wall. 7 schools are functioning either in rental building or shelterless. 71 schools require repair, whereas 3 schools are working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
In order to provide secondary education, urban locations must be covered with secondary school of male as well as female in case of non availability of school. Initially, middle school may be provided which could be up-graded to high school later on as per requirement. There are 2 Higher Secondary Schools in Shikarpur district having 1579 enrolment (1093 male 486 female) with 72 teaching staff.
6.3 COLLEGE EDUCATION.
There are 3 colleges, out of which 2 colleges are reserved for boys and 1 college for girls having 4799 students, same colleges are enriched with teaching staff of 82 male and 32 for female in the district Shikarpur.
6.4 TECHNICAL/COMMERCIAL/VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:
Presently, in Shikarpur there are 2 Mono-Technic institute having intake capacity of 100 students with enrolment of 158 students and one Commercial training institute is functioning in the district.
There are 3 Commercial training centres having enrolment of 218 students. Besides this, 3 vocational institute for women having intake capacity of 250 students, with enrolment of 152 students. CHAPTER-7
HEALTH SECTOR
7.1 District Shikarpur has 3 major hospitals (including one Civil Hospital and 2 Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals), 5 Rural Health Centres, 31 Basic Health Units and 10 Dispensaries with total bed capacity of 343. There are 62 doctors and 88 para medical staff in public sector who extend health services to 633301 outdoor and 17176 indoor patients in the district.
7.2 On the basis of existing health facilities, taluka wise details of population per health/bed facility are given in Table No.8.
7.3 The Civil Hospital located in Shikarpur City provides health facilities to its adjoining areas and whole of the district besides other urban localities are either covered with T.H.Q., R.H.C. or B.H.U. The town-wise coverage of Health facility is given in Table No.1-A.
7.4 By the end of December, 1998, the public sector health institutions in the District excluding Shikarpur and other urban centres consisted of 5 R.H.Cs, 31 B.H.Us and 10 dispensaries. In addition to above, four BHUs and two RHCs are under construction in the District. The Taluka-wise details are given in table No.1.B. As per policy of the government, a BHU has been provided in the every Union Council.
7.5 It may be pointed out that thirty three Union Councils of the district have already been covered with Health Facility of RHC or BHU. However, there are still number of big rural settlements/villages which go without health facilities. The taluka wise Union councils, covered with Health facility, are given in Table No. 7.
7.6 As per prescribed criteria, a Dispensary can be established in a rural settlement with population of 1000 having no health facility within the radius of 2-3 k.ms. Keeping in view the rural settlement pattern of the population census 1998, the following 181 rural settlements are categorized as big settlements with a population of 1000 & above in Shikarpur:
Settlement No.of Covered with DevelopmentSize Settlements Health Facilities Gap As per Population (1998) ----------- ------------- ------------------ --------------
1000 & above 181 56 125
7.7 Out of 181 settlements, 56 are covered with health facility. The rest of 125 settlements are yet to be covered in the Shikarpur district.
7.8 In order to make programme a success, the local community participation is necessary. They can share in the development activity by providing piece of land for construction of health facility and labour, etc.
7.9 The Government has accorded the highest priority to preventive programmes such as EPI, AIDS Control Programme, Malaria Control Programme and Health Education. The diseases covered under the EPI programme are the major killers of children. Efforts are being made to cover most of infants under this programme. It is under execution since 1979. The major objectives of the project are as under:-
(i) Vaccination of 90% new born infants and 100% remaining 12-23 months children against Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Measles and Childhood Tuberculosis.
(ii) Vaccination of 70% pregnant ladies and 100% of child bearing age ladies with atleast two doses of Tetanus Toxoid in order to eliminate neo-natal tetanus.












CHAPTER-8
WATER SUPPLY & DRAINAGE/SEWERAGE
8.1 Potable Water Supply is a pre-requisite for the health of people. But the lack of proper drinking Water Supply and Sanitation in rural as well as urban areas has caused wide spread drinking water pollution and aggravated the existing unsatisfactory environment. Most of the diseases are transmitted by water and poor sanitation which deplete human energy resulting in sickness reducing thereby the productivity of the people.
8.2 Shikarpur District consists of 4 talukas out of which 2 talukas have under-ground water highly saline but the water logging and salinity problem is common in all the four talukas. As such water supply and sanitation in this district assumes great importance.
URBAN WATER SUPPLY:
8.3 As regards the urban water supply in District Shikarpur, all urban localities are provided with water supply either through a piped system or any other non-mechanized source of water supply like hand pumps/wells etc. because of availability of sweet ground water in urban area. Only 3 schemes have been constructed upto June, 1997.
URBAN DRAINAGE:
8.4 As regards the Urban Drainage Schemes in District Shikarpur all urban localities are covered with Drainage, sewerage or open pacca drain system. 12 schemes have been completed upto June 1997 and 2 schemes with estimated cost of Rs. 24.261 million are under implementation during the year 1997-98. Detail of completed and on-going schemes are given in Table No.1
RURAL WATER SUPPLY:
8.5 The over-all water supply position in rural areas of the district shows that 17 schemes have been completed by the end of June 1997; one scheme with estimated cost of Rs.2.546 million is under implementation during the current year i.e. 1997-98. Detail of completed and on-going schemes (taluka-wise) are given in table No.2.
8.6 For providing the water supply scheme in rural areas of Sindh (through a piped water system), the criteria prescribed assigns priority to "A rural settlement with population of 1,000 and above preferably having brackish ground water". In Shikarpur District, there are 181 such rural settlements and following is the coverage position of rural settlements with water supply facility:-
RURAL SETTLEMENT COVERAGE WITH SIZE DURING YEAR 1996-97
Coverage Total 2000+ 1500 1000 to to 1999 1499
Number of Rural Settlements 181 66 32 83 (a) Covered with W/S 17 8 3 6 (b) Uncovered (Dev Gap) 164 58 29 77 (i) With Sweet Ground Water 131 39 25 67 (ii) With Brackish Ground 18 6 4 8 water
(The Taluka wise details are given in Table No.3.
8.7 Out of 181 rural settlements 17 settlement have been covered with water supply facility leaving a Development Gap of 163 rural settlement and according to criteria being followed water supply facility will be required for 18 rural settlements with brackish ground water on priority basis.
8.8 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed water supply schemes (year-wise) and development gaps is given in table No.5.
RURAL DRAINAGE:
8.9 The over-all position of drainage in the district shows that 50 schemes stood completed by the end of June 1997; 7 schemes with estimated cost of Rs.27.756 million are under implementation during the year 1997-98.
8.10 For providing a Drainage scheme in rural areas of Sindh, the criteria prescribed is to select "A rural settlement with population of 1,000 and above preferably having water supply system". In Shikarpur District, there are 181 rural settlements and coverage of rural settlements with the facility upto June, 1997 is as under:- Coverage Total 2000+ 1500 1000 to to 1999 1499
Number of Rural settlements 181 66 32 83 (a) Covered with Drainage 50 27 11 12 (b) Uncovered (Dev Gap) 131 39 21 71 (i) With Water Supply 11 4 1 6 (ii) Without Water Supply 120 35 20 65
(The Taluka wise details are given in Table No.4).
8.11 Since enough water is available according to local requirements due to natural available of ground water in large area of district, it will necessary to provide more drainage schemes as compared to water supply schemes.
8.12 124 rural settlements will require the drainage facility on priority basis.
8.13 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed drainage schemes (year-wise) and development gaps is given in table No.6.
FACILITIES PROVIDED THROUGH RURAL DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT.
8.14 More than 86% population of rural Sindh resides in villages upto 1000 population. Rural Development Department, Govt. of Sindh has been charged with the responsibility of providing Water Supply and Sanitation facilities in these settlements. Presently, it executes two Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Projects funded by the World Bank and UNICEF respectively. Through these projects, potable water is provided by installing hand pumps while Sanitation facilities are provided by constructing household latrines, and hygiene Education in villages having population of upto one thousand souls.
8.15 In District Shikarpur there are a number of 1204 villages with population upto 1000. Rural Development Department has so far provided 264 water supply Schemes through hand pumps in 180 villages and covered 0.0543 million population. This leaves the development gap of a large number of small settlements i.e. 1024 villages where this facility is yet to be provided. Taluka wise details are given at table No.7.
8.16 The Rural Development Department has also helped in forming effective Village Organisation to function collectively and carry forward the participatory development approach. The concept is that by using both local and external resources and working together, the development of the villages can take place. In sanitation, households contribute more than the government share. The Rural Development Department component of this project has adopted bold initiatives in Community Participation and Co-ordination with other institutions (government and non-government) to bring a range of services to project villages.
8.17 The project has following components:-
1. Community Development. 2. Health Development. 3. Water Supply. 4. Sanitation. 5. District Co-ordination Committees. 6. Training. 7. Institutional Strengthening. 8. Documentation.
8.18 Under the two projects aided by World Bank and UNICEF, village Organisations are formed. The hand pumps and sanitation schemes are operated and maintained by the communities.
POLICY ISSUES/OPTIONS:
8.19 In most of the urban areas the problem is more of inadequate and inefficient distribution rather than that of water supply availability. Attention should there fore be focused on a better distribution system alongwith an augmentation of suppers.
8.20 In case of sewerage and drainage, the situation is much worse and is aggravated by the expansion of water supply facilities. Provision of sewerage & drainage disposal facilities has therefore to match the programme of water supply.
8.21 Priority should be given to those areas where sweet ground water is not available at a reasonable depth and where water has to be fetched from distance.( Details are given in Table No.3) Similarly, Special consideration has to be given to areas where the rural population presently relies on surface water which is unfit for human consumption.
8.22 In areas where people have installed their own hand pump, priority should be given to sanitational disposal schemes. Piped water supply system is to be restricted to bigger village with a population ranging from 3000 to 5000. Hand pumps are being provided to smaller villages and initial delivery systems should be based on community stand-post and storage tanks.
8.23 Piped water-supply should be provided only at places where underground water is brackish, but here also the quality of material used and the workmanship must be improved. Frequent water leakages due to use of sub-standard pipes and defective implementation of schemes have created further problems through collection of water in the residential areas and damages of the buildings.
8.24 Water-supply through the implementation of water-supply schemes needs to be monitored regularly to ensure that the water is fit for human consumption. This is desirable specially because the water-supply schemes in Sindh do not provide for the filtration or chlorination process. Long-term effect of such water on health of the people needs to be studied.
8.25 Top priority be assigned to the sanitary disposal of sewage and waste-water which has collected in the form of stinking ponds in the vicinity of the towns and the larger rural settlements. The sewage so collected can neither be disposed off through land treatment (since it may cause soil sickness) nor it could be pumped into the flowing canals due to the fear of water pollution. The sewage ponds give rise to mosquito breeding and are likely to pollute the subsoil water which is the source of drinking water in this area. As such the top priority/attention should be given to solve this problem. The sewage could be treated in the oxidation ponds or in the digesting chambers. It would then be easy to dispose off the treated water into the flowing canals.
8.26 The Public Health Engineering Department (PHED)is responsible for planning, designing and construction of Water Supply Schemes in the province essentially in the larger villages having population of 1000 and above as per prescribed criteria. Sanitation/Drainage schemes are also provided by PHED in villages above 1000 persons where water supply schemes have been already provided. Details of such villages already covered/uncovered through drainage may be seen in table No.4.
8.27 Normally after completion of the schemes Public Health Engineering Department used to hand over the completed schemes to the local councils for operation and maintenance who under took maintenance task with great reluctance due to their unsound financial position, lack of technical know-how and doubts about the quality of construction work of completed schemes. As a result most of the completed schemes are poorly maintained by local councils and are either being partly run or closed down without any public utility.
8.28 Present Government has launched the Social Action Programme (SAP) in the Country which aims to improve the quality of life particularly in rural areas by providing basic amenities, such as, primary education, health care, safe drinking water and sanitation.
8.29 The Provincial Government has adopted a "unified policy" which imbibes the community to take operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Schemes on sustainable basis and as such has decided the following measures:-
(a) That all the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme will be dealt on Community basis.
(b) The Community will be motivated to form village development organisations (VDOS) which will closely associated with the implementation of the schemes at all stages and the completed schemes will be taken over by them for O/M and Management.
(c) In view of unsatisfactory financial conditions of most of the rural communities, it has been decided by the Present Government to provide cost of electricity and non routine maintenance, whereas "Community" will bear the cost of engaging operators/personnel and routine maintenance through recovery of user charges from the consumers.

6 Comments:

Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi my name is Yasir arain and i were living in shikarpur. shikarpur is very historical place our ansister told us here hundo people workship in our God and perfrom in poja pat.

3:32 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi my name is Yasir arain and i were living in shikarpur. shikarpur is very historical place our ansister told us here hundo people workship in our God and perfrom in poja pat.

3:32 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi my name is Yasir arain and i were living in shikarpur. shikarpur is very historical place our ansister told us here hundo people workship in our God and perfrom in poja pat.

3:32 AM  
Anonymous aghainamullahkhan said...

hello
i was born in a small village on main national highway called sultankot with great political and agriculture contribution to dist shikarpur. shikarpur today is like a garbage can with no origianl historical essence which would be found when hindus rulled this city. since the existence of pakistan muslims have not done any thing for this historical city rather gateway town of central asia.Famours schools with reputaion,hospital,gardens,towers,vetnary hospitals,all were built during english raj or with local contribution before partition.Is there any one to bring back the charms of shikapur.
Dr Agha inamullah khan
0333-3989724

4:30 AM  
Anonymous Hisam Memon said...

Long Live Shikarpur

By Hisam Memon [date: 2nd May 2009]





Yes, Shikarpur remained the most urbanized area of the Sindh, Some feudal are governing and there are some kind of vendetta there, some tribes fight and kill each other over trifles often.

Karo Kari [honor killing] is Balouch oriented tradition; people kill their sister, wives, and mothers emotionally in the name of honor [Ghairat-famous Sindhi word for honor].

Police follows feudal [Waderas] and bribe is common in this connection. Some officer [SPs/DPOs] did well to enforce law there e.g. Sanaullah Abbasi, Abdul Khaliq Shaikh, AD Khuwaja, and Khadim Hussian Rind is doing well now a days.

But some officers remained accomplices in crime of bribe and etc. Even some to the level of SHO used to take money of Karo and Kari. [I do not know, is it still in practice or not, but I know one thing that system has not changed yet]



One more thing is this, General Musharraf’s system of grass root level / Local Government, made the feudal stronger even police works under a Nazim, and Nasim in interior Sindh are belonging to feudal class. It has fueled the fire.

Though Shikarpur produced a man Aftab Shaban Mirani, [who represented PPP], who remained Chief Minister of Sindh, but could not do any thing permanently for peace and development, he only gave some jobs to his closer ones. That type of lollypop is no used perpetually.

Our civil society is remaining silent because there is feudal system. In clear we may say people cannot take action, there are threats for them, either they will be killed, kidnapped or harassed.

Instead this, Shikarpur looks historical, some buildings are there and historical symbols have not been vanished thoroughly.



I have been told that the famous picnic point Shahi Bagh is being reconstructed, I have gotten some pictures, and it really looks superb and nice. One bad thing has been done there; trees of different kinds have been cut down.



Once Shikarpur was not only dealing with Kandahar and Bukhara through Bolan Pass but it was famous for its greenery also. People have written that when they used to come towards Shikarpur, they would feel the fragrance of different kind of flowers, trees and etc. That is why, it was green belt. Now it’s deforested and barren type of land, outskirt still looks green due to various crops.

Govt should do some thing seriously for the development and peace of Shikarpur.

We hope, it will emerge an other Japan, if the state is taking some real initiatives in this regard

There are many learned people who are working on Shikarpur, it does not mean that Shikarpur has been died completely, it survives yet and Shikarpuri people know how to live gracefully and respectfully.

Some people are migrating from Shikarpur to Karachi , Hyderabad and other cities of Pakistan , because they need good jobs and livelihood.

We are proud of Shikarpur, we learnt every thing there and it grew us a rational being.

Salam Shikarpur!

[Long live Shikarpur!]



Hisam Memon
Mobile# +92 0334 3675045 [Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan]Emails: memonhisam@yahoo. co.ukmemonhisam@hotmail. commemonhisam@gmail. com

7:13 PM  
Blogger architect buledi said...

dear friends.....
asslam-u-allekum..
my name is zulfiqar ali and working on shikarpur heritage so please help me on those topics which are given below.
the 7 gates of shikarpur.
the window of shikarpur
who develope the city shikarpur.

thans........

8:23 AM  

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