Saturday, March 12, 2005

Dadu Economic Profile

SINDH REGIONAL PLAN ORGANISATION


DRAFTDISTRICT DEVELOPMENT PROFILE/PLANFOR DISTRICT DADU1998

DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT PROFILE/PLAN DADU 1998
CONTENT
Chapter Title Page No.
District Map I District at Galance 1 - 3
Chapter-1 Geographical Characteristics 4 - 5 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Location 1.3 Topography-(Tract/Zone) 1.4 Climate 1.5 Administrative set up
Chapter-2 Demographic Characteristics 6 - 9
2.1 Population 1998 2.2 Settlement pattern (size) urban/rural. - Statistical Tables 8 - 9
Chapter-3 Agriculture 10 - 35
3.1 Land Utilization 11 3.2 Crop Position 12 3.2.1 Wheat 12 3.2.2 Cotton 12 3.2.3 Rice 13 3.2.4 Sugarcane 13 3.2.5 Minor Crops 14 3.3 Fertilizer 14 3.4 Improved Seed 15 3.5 Pesticides 16 3.6 Livestock 17 3.7 Veterinary Institution 19 3.8 Inland Fisheries 20 3.9 Forest 21 3.10 Food Storage 22 -- Statistical Tables 24 - 35

Chapter-3-A Village Electrification 36
Chapter-4 Manufacturing 37 - 45
4.1 Existing Manufacturing 4.2 Industrial Small Scale Units 4.3 District potentials. - Statistical Tables 42 - 45
Chapter-5 Road Net work (Normal/F.T.M) 46 - 52
5.1 Existing Situation 5.2 Road Standards 5.3 Analysis 5.4 Development Gaps - Statistical Tables 51 - 52
Chapter-6 Education 53 - 62
6.1 Primary Education 6.2 Secondary Education 6.3 High Secondary Education 6.3 College Education 6.4 Technical/Commercial/Vocational Education 6.5 Professional Education 6.6 Medical Education 6.7 Establishment of General University 6.8 Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education - Statistical Tables 60 - 62
Chapter-7 Health 63 - 79
7.1 Existing Position of Health alongwith development gap. - Statistical Tables 66 - 79
Chapter-8 Water Supply & Drainage/ 80 - 94 Sewerage
8.1 Urban Water Supply 8.2 Urban Drainage 8.3 Rural Water Supply 8.4 Rural Drainage 8.5 Facilities provided through Rural Development Department. 8.6 Policy Issues/Options. - Statistical Tables 88 - 94 DISTRICT AT GLANCE GENERAL INFORMATION DISTRICT DADU
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------1. ADMINISTRATIVE SETUP
Sub-Division Nos. 4 Talukas " 7 Union Councils " 53 Market Committee " - Deh " 524 Villages/Settlements " 1,737 Metropolitan/Municipal Corp: " - Municipal Committees " 2 Town Committees " 10 2. AREA Sq.kms. 19,016
3. DEMOGRAPHY
Population (Total) Nos. 16,31,427 Male " 8,56,773 Female " 7,74,654
Rural " 12,85,986 Male " 6,77,613 Female " 6,08,373
Urban " 3,45,441 Male " 1,79,160 Female " 1,66,281
Population Density Per sq. km. 86
4. AGRICULTURE (MAJOR CROPS)
Area Hectare
Cotton " 2,539 Rice " 54,791 Wheat " 77,392 Sugarcane " 5,013 Jawar " 6,743 Barley " - Rape Seed & Mustered " 9,492 Gram " 3,875
Production
Cotton Bales 8,164 Rice M.Tons 1,45,446 Wheat " 1,50,699 Sugarcane " 2,36,851 Jawar " 3,599 Barley " - Rape Seed & Mustered " 6,943 Gram " 3,301
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------ 5. INDUSTRIAL SETUP
Sugar Factories Nos. 1 Cotton Ginning Factories " 30 Rice Mills " 9 Oil Mills " - Cement Factories " 3 Others " 31
6. ENERGY
Villages Electrified(200 & above) Nos. 1,048 Development Gap (200 & above) " 684
7. COMMUNICATION: Kms. 1,987
Mettled Road " 1,545
Un-Mettled Road (Katcha) " 442
8. EDUCATION:
Primary Schools Nos. 2,581
a) Male " 2,169 b) Female " 412
Middle Schools " 79
a) Male " 44 b) Female " 35
High Schools " 100
a) Male " 73 b) Female " 27
9. HEALTH INSTITUTIONS:
Civil Hospital/Other Major Nos. 1 Hospitals
Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals " 5
Rural Health Centres " 8
Basic Health Units " 68
Dispensaries (Govt.) " 15

(2)S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------
10. UTILITIES:
Rural Water Supply Schemes Nos. 102 (Completed)
Rural W/S Coverage 1000+ " 102 Population Settlements
Development Gap* " 199
Rural Drainage Scheme (Completed) " 47
Rural Drainage (Coverage) 1000+ " 47
Development Gap (1000) Settlement " 254



















(3) CHAPTER-1
GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1.1 GEOGRAPHY:
The District derives its name from its Head Quarter Town "DADU". It emerged as an independent District in 1931 by bifurcation of Larkana and Karachi Districts. Dadu district is bounded by Larkana district in North, Khirthar range and over it Kalat and Lasbella districts of Baluchistan province on the West. In the South West lies Karachi and its South is covered by Thatta district and on the East across river Indus are districts Naushero Feroze, Nawabshah & Hyderabad.
The total geographical area of the district is 19,016 sq. kms, of which 14,952 sq. kms (78.63%) is hilly area whereas 4,064 kms (21.37%) is plain land. The flat plain strip of 200 miles long and 25 miles wide is highly fertile tract of land in the district.
1.2 TOPOGRAPHY:
The District is flanked by Khirthar range with highest elevation of 6,878 ft. on the West. The District is stretched over 300 kms on North to South and 100 kilometres from East to West. River Indus flows North to South along the eastern boundary of the district. The Manchar is a huge lake within district and is used for fish breeding and as a natural reservoir. The Khirthar National Park located in district Dadu is reserved for wild life preservation. Gorakh hill in Taluka Johi with a height of 5000-7000 ft. is being developed as "Tourist Resort".

1.3 CLIMATE:
The climate in summer is recorded between 85F to 90F. The southern portion of the district comprising of Mahal Kohistan, Kotri & Thano Bula Khan enjoys the pleasant climatic conditions due to blowing of regular sea breezes.
The northern portion consists of Dadu, Mehar, Khairpur Nathan Shah, Johi & Sehwan Talukas and forms an extreme hot belt due to the direction of sea breezes from west to east by Bagho-Thoro mountains near Laki Shah Saddar.
1.4 ADMINISTRATIVE SET-UP:
The district comprises of 4 sub-divisions with 7 talukas i.e. Kotri, Dadu, Mehar, Sehwan, Johi, Khairpur Nathan Shah and Thano Bula Khan. The police administration in district Dadu is based on 4 police sub-divisions, 15 police stations and 23 police posts.
CHAPTER- 2
DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
2.1 The Dadu District is spread over 19016 sq.km., that is, 13.49% of the total geographical area of Sindh, but its share in total Population in 1998 accounted for 1631427 souls of the provincial population. It increased by 51.47% during 1981-98 intercensal period a span of 17 years at an average annual growth rate of 2.47%. In accordance with the land area of Dadu district i.e. 19016 sq. kms. there is density of 86 persons per sq. km. as compared to 57 persons per sq. km. in 1981. Out of its total population 345441 persons or 21% are settled in urban areas and remaining 1285986 persons or 79% are located in rural areas. The sex ratio (male per 100 females) is worked out at 111, this ratio is also constituted 111 males in rural and 108 in urban areas respectively. Town-wise urban population is depicted in table No.I. According to 1998 population census, there are total 313532 households in Dadu district comprising of 1631427 persons thus giving an average size of five persons per household. The taluka wise population of 1998 is depicted in table No.II.
SETTLEMENT PATTERN:
2.2 There are 1737 settlements of rural settlements having population 200-1000 of which 301 are categorized as settlements of population with 1000+ souls. By definition settlement is defined as "Place of human habitation from one isolated house to a big town or a city with certain identified location and name" on other hand the village as per definition of Board of Revenue Sindh, is defined as "Place of human habitation having atleast ten houses".
2.3 The village in population terms therefore could be defined as a place of human habitation having population of about 70-100 persons (7-10 household size) and above (but not more than 5000) with certain identified location and name. The Rural settlement pattern 200 and above according to survey conducted by Sindh Bureau of Statistics during 1995 are depicted below:-----------------------------------------------------------------Taluka Settlement having Population 200-499 500-599 1000+ Total-----------------------------------------------------------------Dadu 172 70 38 280Kotri 95 42 50 187Sehwan 128 44 26 198Johi 197 43 53 293Mahal Kohistan 149 28 09 186Mehar 165 88 79 332K.N.Shah 148 67 46 261-----------------------------------------------------------------Total: 1054 382 301 1737-----------------------------------------------------------------
Source:- Sindh Bureau of Statistics.2.4 The above table reveals that number of settlements having 200-499 constitute 67% of the total settlements of 200-1000. The rural settlements having population of 200+ may be considered as a cut off point and need special attention by providing basic socio-economic facility School/Electricity. The rural settlements less than 500 and more than 200 (200-499) clearly qualify for a mosque school and provision of electricity. The rural settlements with population less than 1000 (500-999) may be considered for provision of education, electricity/pucca road facility and the rural settlements with population 1000 and above should be considered for all possible civic amenities to convert them into sub urban localities and to attract surrounding scattered hamlets to voluntary migration. CHAPTER 3
AGRICULTURE SECTOR
Pakistan's economy has undergone considerable diversification over the years, yet the agriculture sector still constitutes its back-bone. With its present contribution to GDP at 24.87 percent, Agriculture accounts for half of the total employed labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings while it serves as the base sector for the country's major industries like textiles and sugar.
The economic development of Sindh is largely dependent on the progress and growth of Agriculture sector. The Sindh province contributes significantly towards over all national agriculture with 26% of the cultivated area, 17% of the cropped area and 16% of the irrigated area, 19% of the total forest area, 43% of the total production of rice, 25% of cotton, 14% wheat, 30% sugar cane, 22% other food grains, 59% of marine fish, 60% of inland fish and 28% of the live stock production originates in Sindh. Lower productivity levels per hectare continue to be problem No. 1 of crop production. Over a last ten years period, most insignificant increases are noticeable in yield of major crops over several years despite efforts under taken to eradicate water-logging and Salinity, provision of new seed varieties, increased use of fertilizer, pesticides, provision of agriculture extension services and on-farm water management practice and close co-ordination among farmers and agricultural field staff. Achievements of self sufficiency in major crop production must, therefore, address to the key issue bottlenecks. The enhancement of yields in the shortest possible time needs to be taken by reviewing existing programme by involving farming community in co-operative manners reducing reliance on extension staff.
3.1 LAND UTILIZATION.
The pattern of land use in a region determines crop production. Soil & climate play an important role in the management of cropping pattern of a region. Crop area used for food and cash crops can be taken as an index of the type of land system and the economic use for these crops. Land use data for latest five years given in table No.1 reveals that the reported area in Dadu decreased from just over 1901.6 thousand hectares in 1996-97 to 1896.4 thousand hectares in 1997-98. However, not all of this area is cultivable. 79.1% was reported "uncultivable" though its share was 78.6% in 1993-94.
The share of cultivated area in the reported area decreased from 21.4% in 1993-94 to about 20.9% in 1997-98. It, however, is much higher as compared to other districts of Sindh. From the data given in table No.1, the cropping intensities have been increasing since many years, but an acre of land in Dadu district is almost being cropped fully even once in a year. Moreover, the cropped area increased from 229.7 thousand hectares in 1993-94 to 242 thousand hectares in 1997-98 where as the cropping intensity is recorded at 61.1% reflecting lower cropping intensities as compared to Sindh.
The cropped area increased by about 5.4% likewise the cultivated area also slightly increased by 1.8% during the period of last five years. A small part of the area about 5.8% is being used for grazing or forest and remaining land is lying unused due to unfavourable condition or lack of irrigation water.
It is noted that the pressure of total rural population on cultivated area has increased considerably since last many years. The ratio of cultivated area per person decreased from 0.41 in 1981 to 0.24 in 1997.
3.2 CROP POSITION.
There are two main crop seasons; "Kharif" and "Rabi" in Dadu District. The Kharif season starts from April-May and ends in October-November while the Rabi starts from November-December and ends in April-May. However due to regional variation in temperature, several factors i.e varieties, availability of water, soil texture etc determine the crop pattern, sowing and harvesting time. The Crops are further categorized into major and minor crops. Wheat, Cotton, Rice, Sugar-cane are the major crops of the district. Barely, Jowar, Gram, Rapeseed & Mustard, Linseed and Matter fall in the category of minor crops.
3.2.1 WHEAT.
Wheat is also a staple food crop of the people of Dadu district. Thus it occupies the majority of cultivated land under wheat. Its share in total cropped area was recorded at 32.0%. The area and production of wheat for the year 1997-98 were estimated at 77.4 thousand hectares and 150.7 thousand tonnes respectively. The yield, however, was recorded at 1947 kgs.
The area under wheat significantly declined by 4.5% during the year 1994-95. However, it recovered in the next year. The production situation generally remained satisfactorily over the last five years and it grew at the rate of 4.5% due to favourable whether condition at sowing times (Table No.2).
3.2.2 COTTON: Cotton is not only an export earning crop but it also provides raw material to local textile industries in Dadu as well as Sindh. However, its share in production stands at 0.4% in Sindh. The latest estimates of area and production for the year 1997-98 for Dadu district were recorded at 2.5 thousand hectares and 8.2 thousand bales indicating a decrease in area by 6.9% and an increase in production by 59.3% over the previous year. Moreover, the yield per hectare decreased by 71.5% from 319 kgs. per hectare in 1996-97 to 547 kgs. per hectare in 1997-98.
3.2.3. RICE:
Rice is an important food as well as highly valued cash crop that earns substantial foreign exchange for the country. Despite the relative price having favoured the high yielding varieties, farmers traditionally grow the IRRI, and other varieties in district Dadu.
The major rice growing area are Mehar and Khairpur Nathan Shah Talukas along the Rice canal. These areas are called the rice tract, growing mostly paddy in Kharif season. The area under rice increased by 4.2% from 52.6 thousand hectares in 1996-97 to 54.8 thousand hectares in 1997-98. Besides, the production of rice also increased significantly by 12.9% from 128.8 thousand tonnes to 145.4 thousand tonnes. Similarly yield per hectare also increased by 8.5% from 2448 kgs. per hectare to 2655 kgs. per hectare.(Table No.2).
3.2.4. SUGARCANE:
Sugar production in the Sindh province depends mostly on sugarcane crop. Keeping in view its importance, great deal of attention has been paid to increase both the area and production of sugarcane. It was reported that during the year 1997-98 the sugarcane area decreased by 7.6% and production upsurged by 5.3% (Table No.2).
Similarly, the yield per hectare also increased by 14.0% from 41.4 metric tonnes per hectares in 1996-97 to 47.2 metric tonnes per hectare in 1997-98. The increase was mainly due to the attractive incentives to the farmers provided by the sugar mill management and also an increase in support price and favourable climatic condition prevailing in the sugarcane growing areas of district Dadu.
3.2.5. MINOR CROPS:
The information available in table No.3 depicts that Matter Rape & Mustard Jowar, Gram, Barely and Lin seed were the minor crops, which significantly contributed the share of 5.6%, 3.9%, 2.8%, 1.6%, 1.0% and 0.3% in the total cropped area of the district Dadu respectively during the year 1997-98.
3.3 FERTILIZER:
Fertilizer is one of the major input which can enhance the crop production. The timely application and use of correct doze is an essential factor for increasing crop yields. Its contribution towards increased crop production is about 50%.
Mostly the soils of Dadu district are deficit in nitrogenous and phosphatic nutrients. Nitrogen is very essential for accelerating plant vigour, producing large number of flowers, number of sound seeds per capsule and their proper size. It increases protein content of the seed as well. Phosphorous contributes in photosynthetic activities of plants, formation of seed, fibre and proper development of root system.
The recommended dozes of nitrogenous, phosphatic & potassium fertilizer varies from crop to crop and other factors like fertility of soil, topography, availability of water, use of quality seed, proper preparation of land etc.
The information available in table No.4 on off-take of fertilizer for the period from 1993-94 to 1997-98 depicts that it grew at the rate of 6.4% per annum in Dadu district. The total off-take of fertilizer (N+P+K) in Dadu district in both the Kharif and Rabi seasons of 1997-98 was 23.7 thousand nutrients tonnes which was 7.6% higher than the corresponding period of the last year. Moreover, the figures show a remarkable increase of 18.8% in off-take of fertilizer during the year 1996-97 as compared to last year where it was 18.6 thousand M.tonnes.
It is estimated that off-take of fertilizer in Dadu district was 4.0% of the total off-take in Sindh.
3.4 IMPROVED SEED:
A quality of seed is a basic requirement for increasing the production and productivity of the crop. It is a low cost input but has the potential to increase crop yield on an average by 20% as compared to non-certified seeds.
It is reported that sale of certified seeds has been declining since many years. The figures indicate in table No.5 that the sale of wheat, paddy and cotton certified seeds drastically decreased by 75.5%, 84.4% and 100% respectively over the period of last five years. The sale of wheat certified seed was recorded at 840 thousand kg. mds. at the cost of Rs.366 thousand during the year 1997-98 which was 53.0% lesser than the preceding year. It is estimated that 339.4 hectares of wheat crop were cultivated under certified seed which was only 0.4% of the total cropped area under wheat in Dadu district.
The distribution of improved paddy seed was estimated at 270 kg. mds. with a total outlays of Rs.101 thousand during the year 1997-98. Its share to the total cropped area under paddy in Dadu was at 0.4%. Similarly the sale of cotton certified seed is reported at 789 thousand kgs. maunds with estimated cost of Rs.797 thousand in the year 1996-97 which was 36.9% lower than the previous year. It was reported that during the year 1997-98 no improved seed was supplied to district Dadu.
The most farmers use their own (farm) or from market and vast majority have little access for quality control as the public agencies and market agencies do not provide more than 3 to 17 percent of good and certified seed for these crops. The less use of improved seed is one of the most serious factor for obtaining low yields.
3.5 Pesticides.
Pesticides plays major role in protecting cops from the attack of pest and disease. It is estimated that crops losses, during the growth season and after harvesting, caused by insect & pests are considerable high to the extent of 25%. Many of these losses are avoidable, if proper preventive and curative measures are taken. Plant protection measures, dependent mainly on pesticides, are grossly inadequate even for the four leading crops. The most preferred use of plant protection measures on crops are now the ground sprays both as preventive and curative measures.
Increase in cropping intensities and cultivation pattern help the development of permanent flora for retaining the sufficient quantity of seed in soil. The application of tillage operation including hand labour for control of weeds are not traditionally practised due to shortage of labour and its high costs. Weedicides, are not mostly used, however, only insignificant progressive farmers are applying weedicides in wheat crop.
It is reported in table No.6 that the area of 2161 hectares under wheat crops was treated with 4.5 metric tonnes weedicide for the control of weeds which covered only 2.3% of the total area under wheat in Dadu district in 1997-98 (Table No.6).
The latest information available on use of pesticides indicates that the plant protection measures were carried out over an area of 16716 hectares under rice crop which utilized the pesticide of 19.5 metric tonnes. The coverage was only 36.0% of the total area cultivated under rice in district Dadu.
Cotton crops is attacked by large number of insect & pests from sowing to picking stages. In Dadu district, 5622 hectares under cotton were treated for the control of insect pests. The coverage was 221% of the total area under cotton which consumed 408.5 metric tonnes of pesticides. The figure of coverage indicated that same area of cotton sprayed/treated more than twice.
Similarly, Sugar Cane crop with an area of 3662 hectares was protected from the attack of insect pests. The 4.1 metric tonnes pesticides were used with a coverage of 73.1% of the total area under sugar cane in Dadu district.
3.6 Livestock:
Livestock is one of the major sub-sector of Agriculture and back bone of our economy. It contributes roughly one third in the total share of Agriculture GDP. Its main by-products including hides and skins have substantial potential as semi-finished products. A substantial growth on Live Stock products viz-a-viz milk, meat, beef, mutton, poultry and eggs have been notices since many years.
It has been estimated that over three - fourths of the farm power comes from animals, and they are used for most of the farm operations. Bullocks provide the draft power on farm and in transport around the villages.
Most farmers traditionally keep a few heads of live stock, ranging from bullocks for draft to buffaloes or cattle for milk and poultry for eggs & meat. There is a need for increasing the heads of live stock to supplement income by selling products. Production for market even at the expense of consumption at home has become quite common in many areas of Sindh. There are pockets of organised live stock farming, such as cattle farms (or colonies) and poultry farms, located mainly in the urban areas. Most other units are of small size and not well kept.
As per live stock census 1996, the population of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in Dadu district were recorded at 511176, 436816, 370991 and 868538 respectively. The population of live stock grew by 6.8% cattle, 5.2% buffaloes, 0.7% sheep and 3.1% goats over the last live stock census enumerated in 1986. (Table No.7).
Meat, hair, hides, skins and wool are the other major products of live stock. Beef is the most important source of meat. But most of this beef is produced from discarded old bullocks, milch cattle and buffaloes, and buffalo calves. Mutton comes next in the market place, and it is provided by a variety of goats and sheep.
During the year 1997-98 it was reported that 28766 animals were slaughtered in the Dadu district. Out of the total slaughtered animals, 5682 cattle, 6764 buffaloes, 6004 sheep and 10315 goats were slaughtered. It was estimated that 1.1% cattle, 1.5% buffaloes, 1.6% sheep and 1.2% goats were slaughtered out of the total live stock population in 1997-98. It was observed that over the period of five years slaughtering of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats were decreased by 37.5%, 11.1%, 65.7% and 62.7% respectively.( Table No.8)
In order to meet the requirements of meat and milk, live stock farming seems to be necessary in joint venture of public/private sector or helping private sector in importing the livestock for establishing live stock farms through loans on easy terms & conditions. The Dadu district posses vast potential for establishing livestock farming in the district.
3.7 Veterinary Institution.
The under nourishment, disease and internal parasites, act as a serious constrain on animal production. The animal have to be guarded against ill health, and preventive curative measures are required to be taken regularly. The veterinary hospitals, dispensaries and centres provide preventive and curative services for disease control for live stock.
Table No.9 depicts that in Dadu district one veterinary hospital, 8 dispensaries and 72 veterinary centres were functioning during the year 1997-98. In all 86 veterinary institutions were available to provide health coverage and treatment facilities to the entire livestock of the district. Total number of 866 veterinary Institutions were established in the Province of Sindh which translated into the health care ratio of one veterinary Institution for 2628 live stock. It is worked out that Dadu district had 9.9% of the total veterinary Institutions in Sindh. (Table No.9).
Institution Sindh Dadu %age Share Hospital 64 6 9.4% Dispensaries 115 8 6.9% Centres 687 72 10.5% Total 866 86 9.9%
The establishment of veterinary hospitals/centres at district, tahsil and taluka level has hardly contributed towards live stock disease control. Though expansion of live stock dispensaries and centres in the rural area has partially been successful in disease control. There is a need for diversification of veterinary health institutions from cities to rural areas.
The existing position indicates that 362231 animals were treated, and 822961 animals were vaccinated for the control of various diseases in veterinary institutions thereby representing 16.6% of curative and 37.6% of preventive coverage over the total live stock population in Dadu district.
3.8 Inland Fisheries:
Inland fishing, the main economic activity is practised in rivers, lacks and ponds etc. in Sindh province. Fish not only supplements protein deficiency of food but also earns foreign exchange for the country. Fisheries contributes to both the national income and export earnings.
Inland fish production has been increasing over the years. In Dadu district the inland fish production registered with an increase of 2.6% to 3810 m.tonnes in 1997 over the preceding year. It is estimated that Dadu district contributes 9.6% of total 91903 m.tonnes inland fish production of Sindh. It is reported that 3450 fishermen were engaged full time in the fisheries sector whereas 960 fishermen contributed their service for part time during the year 1997. Total number of boats used for the catchment of fish were 1625. Of these, 21.5% boats were sail type and 78.5% boats were row type.(Table No.10)
Per capita consumption of inland fish in the province of Sindh is very low i.e. 3.1 kg only. Keeping in view of the high rate population growth, production from land resources will not be able to keep up with the population increase. Protein deficiency could become serious problem in near future. In order to solve this, fish production needs proper attention to exploit the abundant resources to meet the protein needs of a growing population.
3.9 Forest:
Forests are not only necessary for in-habited by livestock population dependable source of energy but instrumental in improving environmental quality and dependable source for meeting domestic energy requirements of fuel wood. Besides it helps in conservation of soils, improve environment by controlling pollution, cause rainfall and climatic changes supplement source of energy and stabilize gas and oil prices. The forestry programme in Sindh envisages management of forest on commercial basis in the Riverine forests, irrigation plantation forests, mangrove forests, development of Social Forestry, Agriculture, Coconut and Range lands.
Total forest area in Sindh was 1161 thousand hectares or 8.3% of the Sindh province area which far below the desired ratio of 20 to 30 percent considered necessary for balanced ecology. The per capita forest area being 0.039 hectare in Sindh province or 0.032 hectares in the country was also quite low as compared to the world average of about 1.0 hectare.
In Dadu District the forest area is spread over 217.0 thousand hectares which is 18.7% of the total area under forest in Sindh in the year 1997-98. Dadu district produced 239.0 thousand cubic feet timber wood and 78.0 thousand cft. fire wood at the value of Rs.1167.7 thousand which contributes about 6.6% of the total value of forest Timber & Fire wood in Sindh in 1997-98.(Table No.11).
The total forest out put was decreased by Rs.500.8 thousand from Rs.2415.8 thousand in 1996-97 to Rs.1915.0 thousand in 1997-98 thereby recording 20.7% decline in terms of value in Dadu district.
In order to meet the standard ratio of 20-30% land as forest there is a need to bring more area of 162.3 to 351.9 thousand hectares under forest where as in fact there is a substantial potential of growing agro-forest in Dadu .
Progress in increasing forest area has been limited due to financial and social constraints. The only need to increase the forest wealth in the province of Sindh as well as in country is to extensively grow trees on farm lands. In order to involve farming community in tree growing activity, social forestry programmes have been launched through out in the country with attractive incentives in the form of subsidize supply of planting stock, partial payment of planting cost, free protection of planted areas for a limited period of time and fair return to the farmers. The tree plantation on katcha/pucca road/canal path and in Government offices, health/education institution shall continue to be encouraged.
3.10 Food Storage:
Maintenance of food grain reserves is necessary to meet the off season requirements and to stabilize the prices. To achieve this end storage facilities are required by the producers as well as by marketers, processors and the government. The farmer needs storage in order to sell when prices are favourable and reduce seasonal fluctuations in prices. The government requires stocks to carry out the country through bad years. Government role as the distributary agency of essential items necessitates enlargement of storage facilities.
The main thrust of government storage policy is to make available proper storage facilities, bring improvement in grain handling system & reduce grain losses to ensure the supply of adequate and good quality of food grains to the consumers. Food storage in public sector were provided for wheat, rice & cotton.
As a result of significant increase in domestic production and future needs of storage for important agricultural commodities and inputs, the demand for increase in storage capacity has become acute.
As per information provided in table No.12 the storage capacity of 746120 metric tonnes was available with government of Sindh. Of these, 95% godown owned by food department, 0.4% H.type storage accommodation constructed through annual development programme and 4.6% storage facility at an open plinth. Food department, Dadu district had a storage accommodations with total capacity of 128800 metric tonnes. Out of which 78% was binishell and 22% was H.type storage facilities. CHAPTER 3-A
VILLAGE ELECTRIFICATION.
Electricity is essential for urban/rural development in all sectors of economy and in all walks of life. Provision of electricity to rural people is, in other words, a provision of happiness and prosperity to rural masses. Generally electricity in rural areas is provided in rural settlement with population of 200 and above. WAPDA is the sole authority to electrify villages under different programmes.
2. As per population census of 1998, in district Dadu, there were 1732 rural settlements with population 200 and above. WAPDA has so far electrified 1048 villages. There are still 684 villages which need to be electrified. CHAPTER-4
MANUFACTURING
EXISTING MANUFACTURING UNITS (MEDIUM & LARGE SCALE).
4.1 The manufacturing establishments in district Dadu are reported as 74 units during the latest census of manufacturing Industries (CMI) 1997. By comparing with the previous census that took place in 1990-91, under which 81 units were reported, it shows that 7 units have been closed. The leading order of the manufacturing groups during 1997-98 as given below:
S.No. Group No.of Units functioning---- ----- -----------
1. Textile/Woollen 302. Rice Mills 93. Miscellaneous 274. Engineering Industries 35. Cements 36. Cigarette 17. Sugar 1 ------------ 74 ------------4.2 The detailed position of above mentioned Textile/Woollen units, Rice Mills, Engineering Workshops, Cements factories, Sugar Mill and Cigarette manufacturing (Location wise) is given as follows:
KOTRI INDUSTRIAL ESTATE:
4.3 In this industrial estate, there are 42 establishments under various categories reported during the census of manufacturing industries (CMI) 1997-98 against the total number of 74 units for the whole district.
NOORIABAD INDUSTRIAL ESTATE:
4.4 The Nooriabad industrial estate houses only 22 industrial units as reported during the last census.
INDUSTRIES IN REST OF DISTRICT:
4.5 In the rest of District Dadu, there are 10 different categories of Industrial units, out of which 3 units have been reported in taluka Dadu and 7 Units in Mehar while in three talukas i.e. Sehwan, Johi and Khairpur Nathan Shah no Industries have been reported.
4.6 Detailed position/location of Industrial Units in Dadu District is given in Table No.4.1.
PRODUCTION OF MAJOR INDUSTRIES IN DISTRICT DADU.
4.7 There are three types of major specific Industries which cover Cement, Sugar and Pharmaceutical Industries. These include three Cement Industries in private sector i.e. Dada Bhoy Cement, Essa Cement (Nooriabad) and Aurangzeb White Cement (Bolhari). One Sugar Mill namely, Dadu Sugar Mill was set up in Public Sector at Piyaro Goth and one Pharmaceutical Industry was established in the private sector by Sandoz at Jamshoro.
4.8 Production of Cement for entire Sindh is estimated at 45,23,629 Tonnes. Out of this, Dadu District produced 5,22,412 tonnes (or 11.55% or total Cement produced) excluding the production of Anvarzeb white cement, the results of which are not available.
SUGAR MILL IN DISTRICT DADU.
4.9 There is one Sugar Mill in Dadu district located in Piyaro Goth with crushing capacity of 263000 tonnes and 12,827 tonnes of molasses during the year 1996-97. In Dadu, an area of 5013 hectors with production of 236651 Tonnes was brought under Sugar Cane cultivation. The field production at 44.7 tonnes yield per hector happens to be on lower side. The Sugar Cane requirements of the mill are, therefore, fulfilled by procuring Sugar Cane from other districts.
PRIVATE INDUSTRIAL ESTATES, JAMSHORO:
4.10 Sandoz Industrial Estate (Private) located in Jamshoro is spread over 95 acres and Azim Industrial Estate is spread over an area of 350 acres. Due to Security reasons, however, both the estates could not be fully colonized since last 6 to 7 years. However, Sandoz is manufacturing its projects within its limited space employing 298 workmen.
INDUSTRIAL ESTATES (SMALL SCALE) IN DADU.
4.11 The two Industrial Estates are established under Sindh Small Industries Corporation in Dadu district in which one is located in District Headquarters Dadu and other in taluka Headquarters Sehwan. There are 28 Small Industrial Units functioning as self-employment schemes and 9 units are functioning under Small Industrial Estates. Also two project are under process in the district (Detail as given in table -4.2).
4.12 The detail of Industrial groups are as under:
a) Under self Employment Schemes:
i. Rice Mills 8 ii. Ice Factories 4 iii. Dall Mill 1 iv. Others 15
------- 28
-------
b) Under Small Industrial Estates:
i. Vegetable Ghee 2 ii. Ice Factory 1 iii. Building Material 1 M.P.G.(R.C.C. Pipe) iv. Dall Mill 1 v. Others 4
--------- 9 ----------
MINERAL PRODUCTION IN SINDH:
4.13 Sindh province is rich in minerals. 19 minerals are being mined within the province. Identifying the order of mineral production during 1997-98 number one is lime-stone by 27,19,808 M.tonnes, number two is coal producing 1164827 tonnes, number three is shale/clay shown giving 585805 M.tonnes; fourth position is that of Dolomite showing 85552 M.tonnes.
MINERAL PRODUCTION IN DISTRICT DADU:
4.14 Dadu district being most mountainous area of the Sindh province inherits rich mineral resources. Table No.4.3 shows eight types of minerals giving details of production from 1993-94 to 1997-98 spreading over in an area of 94,689 acres. To-date, mining of 11,54,329 tonnes of Coal have been done. The lease for mining of the following minerals has been issued as per following details, during 1997-98:
i. Chalk has been granted lease on 1,694 acres under which 6565 tonnes have been generating with Rs.56,396 revenue for royalty.
ii. Celestial has been granted lease over 72,238 acres under which 161 tonnes have been mined.
iii. Fullers earth has been granted lease on 4,376.6 acres producing approximately 913 tonnes.
iv. Lease for Coal has been granted are on 115690 acres. Production is shows as 1154329 tonnes have been generated as revenue.
v. Lease for quarrying Lime-stone has been granted over 10,425.19 acres. Production is shown as 66396 tonnes.
vi Shale/Clay quarrying has been allowed over 6,285 acres producing 215055 tonnes.
vii. Silica Sand lease grants are given an area of 3,586.28 acres with production of 22725 tonnes.
viii Gravel lease are granted over an area of 1500 acres with production of 35960 tonnes. CHAPTER-5
ROAD NETWORK
5.1 Road net work is considered as a vehicle for economic development and social change. It is used as an Indicator for computing the stage of economic development. Efficient road network not only develops a quick and efficient transportation system but also opens up new area hitherto remained closed. It brings about social integration among rural and urban sectors and greatly assists in accessibility to basic needs i.e. schools, hospitals, etc. It brings rural areas in constant touch with urban segment of society and creates better understanding necessary for social change and political awakening.
5.2 The district has good rail road network. The railway line runs alongwith the eastern border of the district. It enters the district at Kotri in South Eastern corner and goes along the river Indus all the way up to North and passes through Dadu district headquarter and enters Larkana district.
COMMUNICATION NETWORK.
5.3 The road network in Dadu District is mostly concentrated in the Indus flood plain as major area is covered by hills. The Indus Highway passes through the major towns of the district and functions as the main arterial road connecting other link roads which provide access to rural areas. The Indus Highway also operates as an alternate route on right bank of river Indus.
5.4 The District Headquarter is connected with its Taluka Headquarters through metalled roads.
5.5 A road bridge is also constructed over river Indus to connect Dadu district with Nawabshah (Moro) district at Lalia Pathan.
5.6 The important link roads taking off from the Indus Highway are Dadu-Johi road, Mehar-Radhan road, K.N. Shah-Sita Road and Bhan-Johi road. Urban areas within the district are connected with metalled road. Through concerted efforts of the provincial government, majority of 1000+ villages have also been connected with metalled road. The lack of foot-bridges on the canals in the interior district is identified as a major problem which can be addressed through continuous development efforts. The widening and reconditioning of Indus Highway is almost a regular feature.
EXISTING ROAD LENGTH IN THE DISTRICT.
5.7 Upto June 1998, Dadu district had a total of 1545.30 kms. of metalled Roads constructed through Highway Department, National High Way Authority and provincial Government while Katcha Road mileage exists at 441.76 kms. Road density comes to 0.09 km. per sq. km. of geographical area.
5.8 Details are given as follows.
ABSTRACT OF ROAD MILEAGE (K.M.) OF DISTRICT DADU AS ON 30-06-1998
S.NO. ITEMS METALLED KATCHA TOTAL ROAD IN ROAD IN LENGTH KM. KM. IN KM.----- ----------------- -------- ------- ------
i. Provincial Roads 388.72 -- 388.72ii. Rural Roads 396.43 103.44 499.87iii. Farm to Market Road 760.15 338.32 1098.47
---------------------------- Grand Total:- 1545.30 441.76 1987.06 ----------------------------
5.9 Details of roads by type in various talukas of the District are shown in Table No.1.
ROAD STANDARDS:
5.10 For identifying the development gaps, there are certain standards about adequacy of roads which are as under:

i) 0.50 km. of Pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographic area.
ii) Road density based on cultivable area. (2.km. per 1 sq.km.)
iii) Road density based on cropped area.(1.km. per 1.sq.km.)
iv) Road network connecting settlements of 1000+ and 500+ population.
v) Road length per 10,000 population.
vi) Movement of persons goods and services.

5.11 The available international standard related to agriculture postulates that there should be atleast 2 km. of road for every sq.km. of cultivable area. Modification of this standard appears necessary from two angles: Firstly, this standard includes katcha roads as well whereas we would like to evolve standard in terms of metalled road only. Secondly, the standard is related to cultivable area which is invariably greater than cropped area. The cropped area standard of 1 km. of metalled road per sq.km. of cropped area is also misleading. As in irrigated area, it must be much higher than in deserted/hilltorian areas. However, the settlements located in unirrigated zone also require special attention and connecting of 1000+ & 500+ villages appears appealing except some settlements located in unproductive zones (desert, hill tracts) the settlements lying therein with population 1000+ should at least be connected.
5.12 Under the population standard, urban settlements with large population would get more roads. However, the data of movement of persons, goods and services is not easily available.
5.13 Under these circumstances, the standard based on geographical area is most suited i.e. (0.5 km. of pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographical area).
DEVELOPMENT GAP:
5.14 Super imposing the chosen/agreed standard of 0.5 km. of metalled Road for one sq. km. of geographical area, we need a total of 9508 kms. of metalled road. With the existing road length pitched at 1545.3 kms. additional road length of 7962.7 km. as per (development gap) is required to be constructed to meet the required standard in District Dadu. Details are given at Table No.2.

ANALYSIS.
5.15 A simple taluka wise analysis of the road situation in the district is given in Table No.2. The table shows pucca road densities in terms of K.M. per sq.km of geographical area wherein it is evident that Thano Bula Khan taluka is by far the most back ward taluka in so far as pucca road facility is concerned. The pucca road density for this taluka works out as 0.005 K.M per sq.km of geographical area as compared to the respective figures of 0.08 K.M for the district.
5.16 According to High ways Department's road statistics Sindh Province had a total of 20781.45 Km of pucca road upto June 1998, out of this, 1545.3 kms. (7.44%) were in Dadu District which compare well with its population share of 5.44%. Comparative position of road length and densities in the geographical areas of various districts may be seen in Table No.3. CHAPTER-6
EDUCATION SECTOR
The Majority of Schools in the District belonging to Government are functioning under the supervision of District Education Officer (Male/Female). Education is basic right of the people, therefore Primary Education for Children male/Female is mandatory and it is provided free of cost in the province of Sindh. The formal Educational structure in Sindh is divided into four main streams, the first level known as primary refers to Grade I-V for age of school going population 5-9 years, 2nd stage includes middle elementary, secondary and higher secondary. The third stream is called college education which consists of higher education. After completion of the college education, a candidate is awarded Bachelor degree in Arts, Commerce or Science. Duration of post secondary education varies in Technical and Professional fields, the Poly Technic Institutes offer four years B. Tech course. A Bachelor degree in medicines requires five years education. Similarly Bachelor degree courses in Engineering, Agriculture and Veterinary medicines are awarded of four years duration after the intermediate examination.
An additional two years after the bachelor degree are required to acquire a master degree in Arts/Commerce or Science leading to award a Ph.D degree may require two or three more years after the completion of master degree course.
6.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION: In the existing Primary Schools network during 1997-98 in Dadu, there were total 2581 schools including mosque schools, out of which 2391 schools were located in rural areas and 190 schools in urban areas, urban schools of total 190 were further bifurcated into 137 male and 53 female schools, total primary enrolment of 163079 souls was noted (109057 male and 54022 female) in the district, there, 7279 teaching staff was engaged in providing primary education including 1344 female teachers.
Teacher student ratio worked out on the basis of information received from the Education Department stands at 1:22, 1:18 and 1:40 for male, female and both sexes respectively.
The City of Hyderabad deserves the highest concentration of educational institutions in the district besides private sector maintains schools and colleges in the city.
In Dadu District, there were 290 closed/on paper Primary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 1091 boys and 130 girls schools were lacking toilets. 1626 schools were without drinking water facility. 1422 primary schools including 120 girls schools are without boundary wall. 511 schools are functioning either in rental building or shelterless. 891 schools require repair, where as 92 schools were working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
The Social Action programme SAP has taken care of the idea by enhancing female enrolments and developed a following criteria which will boost up the female primary education.
CRITERIA FOR RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOLS (2 ROOM)
(a) The first school in a area shall be established as mixed school. The Second School in the same areas shall be girls school. (b) No existing primary school within the range of 1.5 km. (c) The age group population of 5-9 years must be 100.
For universalization of primary education there is need of opening new schools which will provide additional enrolment resulting in increase of literacy rate. There is need of reactivation of closed schools. And also there is need of resorting the existing enrolment for which reconstruction improvement in existing schools is required.
To achieve the goal following are the recommendations.
A. REACTIVATION OF CLOSED PRIMARY SCHOOLS:
1. Stoppage of transfer/deputation of teacher from village schools to, urban area/or place of their choice.
2. The closed schools located at remote places/or in a settlements below criteria and having no school building may officially be declared as closed and a new school may be established at a deserving rural settlement that falls on the population criteria etc.
3. In future, while appointing primary school teachers (male/female), preference may be given to local area teachers. Due to this at least "non local teachers" will not be the reason for closure of the schools.
B. CONSOLIDATION OF EXISTING PRIMARY SCHOOLS: 1. Buildings may only be provided to already established school functioning in a temporary accommodation, running under trees in Jhugis or rented building and having atleast enrolment of 60 children.
2. Furniture/Electricity/Water/Toilet/Latrine facility may be provided to such an established schools that have suitable building and having no such facilities in the first instance.
3. Re-adjustment of existing schools buildings may be done through administrative steps. A simple executive order issued for introduction of double shift programme in urban/rural locations will change the scenario and will also save the anticipated development expenditure to be incurred on provision of separate building facility for boys & girls.
4. The boys school buildings located in rural settlements with 1000 and above population can be provided with additional class rooms if required, to make the school, five roomed.
C. OPENING OF NEW MOSQUE/PRIMARY SCHOOLS:
1. Instead of opening new primary schools for boys (alongwith construction of a new building) in rural settlements of 500-999, following strategy is proposed to be adopted:
a) In case of a building available for girls school, 2 shifts approach may be adopted. This will result in full utilization of the available school buildings.
b) Only mosque schools may be opened, where there is a gap in rural settlements below 500 population at the initial stage. After three years the mosque schools that attain an enrolment of 50 or more, after an evaluation may be converted into a primary school. The building may be provided to such school where there is no school building already available in the village.
3. No new building may be provided where the schools can run in shifts in the existing buildings of a primary school for boys or girls. This type of administrative action will reduce the development cost to be incurred on construction of new buildings.
D. CO-EDUCATION:
In urban area co-education at primary level may be introduced and female teacher may be appointed/posted in primary schools.
6.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION:
Secondary education consists of middle/high schools. In its existing position there were 79 middle schools (44 male and 35 female) in district Dadu with enrolment of 4039 and 401 teachers as per information available for 97-98.
As regards the high schools, there were 88 high schools (65 for male and 23 for female) in the district during 1997-98. There were working 1503 teachers to coupe with the enrolment of 31764.
In Dadu District, there were 8 closed/on paper Secondary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 34 boys and 15 girls schools were lacking toilets. 59 schools were without drinking water facility. 49 Secondary schools including 9 girls schools are without boundary wall. 12 schools are functioning either in rental building or shelterless. 74 schools require repair, where as 11 schools were working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
In order to provide secondary education, urban locations must be covered with secondary school of male as well as female in case of non availability of school, initially middle school may be provided which could be up-graded to high school later on as per requirement. There are 12 Higher Secondary Schools in Dadu district having 11096 enrolment (6840 male 4256 female) with 402 teaching staff.
As regards the rural area every union council should have middle or high school, rural localities having population 2000 and above must be provided secondary school (middle/high school) for boys and girls. On the basis of information available, development gap in rural settlement 1000 and above has been identified and placed in table 9.4.
6.3 COLLEGE EDUCATION
The total number of colleges in the district are 7 for Arts & Science & Home Economics out of which 6 colleges are for boys and 1 college for girls having 6498 students with 5915 male and 583 female with their teaching staff 107 male 17 female in the district Dadu.
6.4 TECHNICAL/COMMERCIAL/VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:
Presently Dadu has one Polytechnic institute having intake capacity of 300 students with enrolment 1217 students beside this 1 Monotechnic institute having intake capacity of 50 student with 96 students is functioning in the district.
There are 6 Commercial training centre having intake capacity of 420 students with enrolment of 154 students. Commercial Training Institute having intake capacity of 140 students with 221 enrolment, and also one Government Vocational Institute (Boys) located at Dadu taluka having intake capacity of 75 student with enrolment 92 students. Besides this 9 vocational institute for women are located at Taluka Dadu, Sehwan, Kotri, Mehar, Khairpur Nathan Shah, Tharri Muhabat, Johi, Jamshoro, Radhan having intake capacity of 150 students with enrolment of 29 students and 2 Govt. Commercial training institute having intake capacity of 75 student. CHAPTER-7
HEALTH SECTOR
7.1 District Dadu has 1 District Head Quarter Hospital, 5 Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals, 8 Rural Health Centres, 49 Basic Health Units and 14. Dispensaries with total bed capacity of 729. There are 498 doctors and 859 para medical staff in public sector who extend health services to 711708 outdoor and 17,856 indoor patients in the district.
7.2 On the basis of existing health facilities, taluka wise details of population per health/bed facility are given in Table No.8.
7.3 The Civil Hospital Located in Dadu city provides health facilities to Dadu city its adjoining areas and whole of the district besides other urban localities are either covered with T.H.Q., R.H.C or B.H.U. The Town wise coverage of Health facility is given in Table No. 1.A.
7.4 By the end of December, 1998, the public sector health institutions in the District and other urban centres consisted of 8 R.H.Cs, 49 B.H.Us and 14 dispensaries. In addition to above, 19 BHUs and one RHC are under construction in the District. The Taluka-wise details are given in table No.1.B. As per policy of the government, a BHU has been provided in the every Union Council.
7.5 It may be pointed out that fifty three Union Councils of the district have already been covered with Health Facility of RHC or BHU. However, there are still number of big rural settlements/villages which go without health facilities. The taluka wise Union councils, covered with Health facility, is given in Table No. 7.
7.6 As per prescribed criteria, a Dispensary can be established in a rural settlement with population of 1000 having no health facility within the radius of 2-3 k.ms. Keeping in view the rural settlement pattern of the population census 1998, the following 236 rural settlements are categorized as big settlements with a population of 1000 & above in Dadu:
Settlement No.of Covered with DevelopmentSize Settlements Health Facilities Gap As per Population (1998) ----------- ------------- ------------------ --------------
1000 & above 301 86 215

7.7 Out of 301 settlements, 86 are covered with health facility. The rest of 215 settlements are yet to be covered in the Dadu district.
7.8 In order to make programme a success, the local community participation is necessary. They can share in the development activity by providing piece of land for construction of health facility and labour, etc.
7.9 The Government has accorded the highest priority to preventive programmes such as EPI, AIDS Control Programme, Maleria Control Programme and Health Education. The diseases covered under the EPI programme are the major killers of children. Efforts are being made to cover most of infants under this programme. It is under execution since 1979. The major objectives of the project are as under:-
(i) Vaccination of 90% new born infants and 100% remaining 12-23 months children against Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Measles and Childhood Tuberculosis.
(ii) Vaccination of 70% pregnant ladies and 100% of child bearing age ladies with atleast two doses of Tetanus Toxoid in order to eliminate neo-natal tetanus.
CHAPTER-8
WATER SUPPLY & DRAINAGE/SEWERAGE
8.1 Potable Water Supply is a pre-requisite for the health of people. But the lack of proper drinking Water Supply and Sanitation in rural as well urban areas has caused wide spread water borne diseases of which diarrhoea among small children happens to be a major killer. The diseases transmitted by water and poor sanitation deplete human energy, resulting in sickness reducing thereby the productivity of the people.
8.2 Water Supply is vitally important sector for the urban and rural population of the district. The rural population distribution in district is quite unique in the sense that it has fewer larger villages and a very large number of small settlements, most of which can hardly be called "Villages" they are essentially on the farm clusters of population "Widely Scattered". According to the requirements of various categories of settlements, Sindh Govt.provides Water Supply and Drainage facilities to the people through its Departments i.e. Public Health Engineering Department and Rural Development Department. The break up of size of village/settlement with %age share are as under:-
SIZE OF VILLAGES NUMBER PERCENTAGE(%)
i) Less than 1000. 3274 91.66% ii) 1000 and above 301 8.34% Total: 3575 100%

URBAN WATER SUPPLY:
8.3 As regards the Urban Water Supply Schemes in District Dadu, all urban localities are covered with Water Supply of piped water system . 26 schemes have been completed as reported upto June 1997 and 6 schemes at estimated cost of Rs.184.070 million are under implementation during the year 1997-98. Details of completed and on-going Water Supply Schemes (Taluka-wise) are given in Table No.1.
URBAN DRAINAGE:
8.4 So far provision of Urban Drainage Schemes in District Dadu is concerned, all urban localities are covered with Drainage sewerage or open pacca drain system. 14 schemes have been completed as reported upto June, 1997 while 5 schemes at estimated cost of Rs.174.759 million are under implementation during the year 1997-98. Details of number of completed and on-going Drainage Schemes (Taluka-wise) are given in Table No.1.
RURAL WATER SUPPLY:
8.5 The water supply facility in the rural areas of Sindh through a piped water system is to be provided according to the criteria which gives priority to "A rural settlement with population of 1000 and above preferably having brackish ground water". In Dadu district, 301 rural settlement having population upto 1000 are categorised in to 3 type of settlements in descending order according to their size of population taking into account the quality of ground water.
8.6 Presently, out of 82 rural settlements having population 2000 and above, 50 settlements have been covered by the water supply facility. In second category which includes 59 settlements with population ranging between 1999 to 1500, 14 rural settlements have been facilitated by water supply schemes while in the third category out of 160 rural settlements 16 have been covered by such facility. Thus, out of total 301 rural settlements 80 settlements are covered with the required facility of water supply as reported upto June 1997. Taluka-wise details of uncovered settlements and their quality of water is given in table No.3.
8.7 For providing the water supply to uncovered rural settlements, 22 schemes are under implementation at the estimated cost of Rs.249.241 million during the current year i.e. 1997-98 leaving development gap of 199 uncovered villages. According to criteria 154 additional settlements with brackish water will require water supply schemes on priority basis. Details of completed, on-going schemes and No. of brackish water settlements (taluka wise) are given at table No.2 and 3. 8.8 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed water supply schemes (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.5.
RURAL DRAINAGE:
8.9 Drainage system in the rural areas of Sindh under the prescribed criteria is provided for "A rural settlement with population 1000 & above preferable having water system". Presently out of total 301 rural settlements 38 settlements have been covered by the drainage facility. As per categorisation, out of 82 rural settlements having population 2000 and above, 23 settlements are facilitated by the drainage facility. In second category, only 6 settlements from 59 have been covered with drainage. Under third Category, out of 160 rural settlements, 9 settlements are having the facility of drainage system. Taluka wise details of completed drainage schemes are given in table No.4.
8.10 For providing the Rural Drainage facility to the uncovered rural settlements another 9 schemes are under implementation at the estimated cost of Rs.42.828 million duringthe current year (i.e.1997-98), leaving a development gap of 254 rural settlements. According to criteria, 61 settlements with water supply schemes will require drainage facility on priority basis. The details of taluka wise completed, on-going schemes and uncovered settlements are given in table 2 & 4. 8.11 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed drainage scheme (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.6.
FACILITIES PROVIDED THROUGH RURAL DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT.

8.12 More than 86% population of rural Sindh resides in villages upto 1000 population. Rural Development Department, Govt. of Sindh has been charged with the responsibility of providing Water Supply and Sanitation facilities in these settlements. Presently, it executes two Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Projects funded by the World Bank and UNICEF respectively. Through these projects, potable water is provided by installing hand pumps while Sanitation facilities are provided by constructing household latrines, and hygiene Education in villages having population of upto one thousand souls.
8.13 In District Dadu there are a number of 3274 villages with population upto 1000. Rural Development Department has so far provided 711 water supply Schemes through hand pumps in 430 villages and covered 0.971 million population. This leaves the development gap of a large number of small settlements i.e. 2844 villages where this facility is yet to be provided. Taluka wise details are given at table No.7.
8.14 The Rural Development Department has also helped in forming effective Village Organisation to function collectively and carry forward the participatory development approach. The concept is that by using both local and external resources and working together, the development of the villages can take place. In sanitation, households contribute more than the government share. The Rural Development Department component of this project has adopted bold initiatives in Community Participation and Co-ordination with other institutions (government and non-government) to bring a range of services to project villages.
8.15 The project has following components:-
1. Community Development. 2. Health Development. 3. Water Supply. 4. Sanitation. 5. District Co-ordination Committees. 6. Training. 7. Institutional Strengthening. 8. Documentation.
8.16 Under the two projects aided by World Bank and UNICEF, village Organisations are formed. The hand pumps and sanitation schemes are operated and maintained by the communities.
POLICY ISSUES/OPTIONS:
8.17 In most of the urban areas the problem is more of inadequate and inefficient distribution rather than that of water supply availability. Attention should there fore be focused on a better distribution system alongwith an augmentation of suppers.
8.18 In case of sewerage and drainage, the situation is much worse and is aggravated by the expansion of water supply facilities. Provision of sewerage & drainage disposal facilities has therefore to match the programme of water supply.
8.19 Priority should be given to those areas where sweet ground water is not available at a reasonable depth and where water has to be fetched from distance.( Details are given in Table No.3) Similarly, Special consideration has to be given to areas where the rural population presently relies on surface water which is unfit for human consumption.
8.20 In areas where people have installed their own hand pump, priority should be given to sanitational disposal schemes. Piped water supply system is to be restricted to bigger village with a population ranging from 3000 to 5000. Hand pumps are being provided to smaller villages and initial delivery systems should be based on community stand-post and storage tanks.
8.21 Piped water-supply should be provided only at places where underground water is brackish, but here also the quality of material used and the workmanship must be improved. Frequent water leakages due to use of sub-standard pipes and defective implementation of schemes have created further problems through collection of water in the residential areas and damages of the buildings.
8.22 Water-supply through the implementation of water-supply schemes needs to be monitored regularly to ensure that the water is fit for human consumption. This is desirable specially because the water-supply schemes in Sindh do not provide for the filtration or chlorination process. Long-term effect of such water on health of the people needs to be studied.
8.23 Top priority be assigned to the sanitary disposal of sewage and waste-water which has collected in the form of stinking ponds in the vicinity of the towns and the larger rural settlements. The sewage so collected can neither be disposed off through land treatment (since it may cause soil sickness) nor it could be pumped into the flowing canals due to the fear of water pollution. The sewage ponds give rise to mosquito breeding and are likely to pollute the subsoil water which is the source of drinking water in this area. As such the top priority/attention should be given to solve this problem. The sewage could be treated in the oxidation ponds or in the digesting chambers. It would then be easy to dispose off the treated water into the flowing canals.
8.24 The Public Health Engineering Department (PHED)is responsible for planning, designing and construction of Water Supply Schemes in the province essentially in the larger villages having population of 1000 and above as per prescribed criteria. Sanitation/Drainage schemes are also provided by PHED in villages above 1000 persons where water supply schemes have been already provided. Details of such villages already covered/uncovered through drainage may be seen in table No.4.
8.25 Normally after completion of the schemes Public Health Engineering Department used to hand over the completed schemes to the local councils for operation and maintenance who under took maintenance task with great reluctance due to their unsound financial position, lack of technical know-how and doubts about the quality of construction work of completed schemes. As a result most of the completed schemes are poorly maintained by local councils and are either being partly run or closed down without any public utility.
8.26 Present Government has launched the Social Action Programme (SAP) in the Country which aims to improve the quality of life particularly in rural areas by providing basic amenities, such as, primary education, health care, safe drinking water and sanitation.
8.27 The Provincial Government has adopted a "unified policy" which imbibes the community to take operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Schemes on sustainable basis and as such has decided the following measures:-
(a) That all the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme will be dealt on Community basis.
(b) The Community will be motivated to form village development organisations (VDOS) which will closely associated with the implementation of the schemes at all stages and the completed schemes will be taken over by them for O/M and Management.
(c) In view of unsatisfactory financial conditions of most of the rural communities, it has been decided by the Present Government to provide cost of electricity and non routine maintenance, whereas "Community" will bear the cost of engaging operators/personnel and routine maintenance through recovery of user charges from the consumers.

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