Saturday, March 12, 2005

Badin Economic Profile




Chapter Title Page No.
District Map I Development at Galance 1 - 3 Chapter-1 Geographical Characteristics 4 - 6 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Location 1.3 Topography-(Tract/Zone) 1.4 Climate 1.5 Administrative set up
Chapter-2 Demographic Characteristics 7 - 11
2.1 Population 1998 2.2 Settlement pattern (size) urban/rural. - Statistical Tables
Chapter-3 Agriculture 12 - 36
3.1 Land Utilization 3.2 Crop Position 3.2.1 Rice 3.2.2 Wheat 3.2.3 Sugarcane 3.2.4 Minor Crops 3.3 Fertilizer 3.4 Improved Seed 3.5 Pesticides 3.6 Livestock 3.7 Veterinary Institution 3.8 Inland Fisheries 3.9 Forest 3.10 Food Storage -- Statistical Tables

Chapter-3-A Village Electrification 37
Chapter-4 Manufacturing 38 - 42
4.1 Existing Manufacturing 4.2 Industrial Small Scale Units 4.3 District potentials. - Statistical Tables
Chapter-5 Road Net work (Normal/F.T.M) 43 - 48
5.1 Existing Situation 5.2 Road Standards 5.3 Analysis 5.4 Development Gaps - Statistical Tables
Chapter-6 Education 49 - 56
6.1 Primary Education 6.2 Secondary Education 6.3 High Secondary Education 6.3 College Education 6.4 Technical/Commercial/Vocational Education 6.5 Professional Education 6.6 Medical Education 6.7 Establishment of General University 6.8 Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education - Statistical Tables
Chapter-7 Health 58 - 74
7.1 Existing Position of Health alongwith development gap. - Statistical Tables
Chapter-8 Water Supply & Drainage/ 75 - 89 Sewerage
8.1 Urban Water Supply 8.2 Urban Drainage 8.3 Rural Water Supply 8.4 Rural Drainage 8.5 Facilities provided through Rural Development Department. 8.6 Policy Issues/Options. - Statistical Tables DISTRICT AT GLANCE GENERAL INFORMATION DISTRICT BADIN
Sub-Division Nos. 3 Talukas " 4 Union Councils " 42 Market Committee " - Deh " 490 Villages/Settlements " 6,538 Metropolitan/Municipal Corp: " - Municipal Committees " 2 Town Committees " 8 2. AREA Sq. kms. 6,726
Population (Total) Nos. 11,08,394 Male " 5,82,242 Female " 5,26,152
Rural " 9,24,927 Male " 4,84,888 Female " 4,40,039
Urban " 1,83,467 Male " 97,354 Female " 86,113
Population Density Per 169
Area Hectare
Cotton " 2,732 Rice " 75,449 Wheat " 32,431 Sugarcane " 59,989 Jawar " - Barley " 5,331 Rape Seed & Mustered " 877 Gram " -
Cotton Bales 6,827 Rice M.Tons 1,51,958 Wheat " 48,725 Sugarcane " 38,06,773 Jawar " - Barley " 2,951 Rape Seed & Mustered " 451 Gram " -
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------ 5. INDUSTRIAL SETUP
Sugar Factories Nos. 5 Cotton Ginning Factories " - Rice Mills " - Oil Mills " - Ice Factories " - Others " -
Villages Electrified(200 & above) Nos. 660 Development Gap (200 & above) " 897
7. COMMUNICATION: Kms. 1550.40
Mettled Road " 1,412
Un-Mettled Road (Katcha) " 148.4
Primary Schools Nos. 2,640
a) Male " 2,300 b) Female " 340
Middle Schools " 128
a) Male " 99 b) Female " 29
High Schools " 48
a) Male " 40 b) Female " 8
Civil Hospital/Other Major Nos. 1 Hospitals
Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals " 3
Rural Health Centres " 12
Basic Health Units " 38
Dispensaries (Govt.) " 6

(2)S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------
Rural Water Supply Schemes Nos. 49 (Completed)
Rural W/S Coverage 1000+ " 49 Population Settlements
Development Gap* " 51
Rural Drainage Scheme (Completed) " 21
Rural Drainage (Coverage) 1000+ " 21
Development Gap (1000) Settlement " 79




Badin district derives its name from its headquarters town. The district was created after the 1972 Census of Pakistan. It has been formed of whole of Badin and Tando Bago Talukas, entire Matli Taluka except Tando Saindad Supervisory Tapedar Circle and about fifty percent area of Tando Mohammad Khan Taluka of the Hyderabad district. In addition, the district also includes Ahmed Rajo Supervisory Tapedar Circle taken out from Jati Taluka of Thatta District. The area taken out from Tando Mohammad Khan Taluka of Hyderabad district and Jati Taluka of Thatta district have been combined to form Golarchi Taluka of Badin district.
The district is located from 24-16' to 25-16' north latitudes and 68-21' to 69-20' east longitudes. It is surrounded in the north by Hyderabad district, in the east Tharparkar district, in the south by Ran of Kutch area and in the west Thatta district. The total area of the district is about 6,562 Sq. Kms. 1.3 TOPOGRAPHY:
The district is a part of the Lower Indus Plain formed by the alluvial deposits of the Indus river. The southern part of the district is close to the delta of the river Indus and the land surface is, therefore relatively low as compared to the northern half. The general elevation of the district is about 50 metres above sea level. In the southern part there are several natural channels (dhoras) and depressions (dhands) which in some cases retain water throughout the year. It is believed that in the past, the Arabian Sea was near the southern border of this district.
The climate of District is moderate. It is hot in summer and cold in winter. The hot months continue from April to end of October. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures for the summer season are approximately 37C and 25C and in winter the maximum and minimum temperatures are 29C and 15C respectively. The average rainfall have been recorded 16.37 millimetres during the year 1993.
The humidity was 74% during day hours and 40% in night during the year 1993.
For the purpose of Provincial Government administration, the district has been divided in to four talukas, namely Badin, Matli, Tando Bago and Golarchi, and three Sub-Divisions. The local bodies set up include two Municipal Committees which are known as Badin and Matli and 8 Town Committees namely, Tando Ghulam Ali, Khoski, Tando Bago, Rajo Khanani, Talhar, Kadhan, Kario Ghanwar and Golarchi. At the level of Union Council for rural area there are 42 Union Councils constituted with 490 dehs.

-------------------------------------------------------------- TALUKA MUNICIPAL TOWN UNION DEHS COMMITTEE COMMITTEE COUNCIL--------------------------------------------------------------
BADIN 1 2 13 162 MATLI 1 1 9 96 TANDO BAGO - 3 12 133 GOLARCHI - 2 8 99-------------------------------------------------------------- DISTRICT 2 8 42 490---------------------------------------------------------------


2.1 The Badin District is spread over 6725, that is, 4.66% of the total geographical area of Sindh, but its share in total Population in 1998 accounted for 1108394 souls or 3.7% of the provincial population. It increased by 42.72% during 1981-98 intercensal period a span of 17 years at an average annual growth rate of 2.12%. In accordance with the land area of Badin district i.e. 6562 sq. kms. there is density of 169 persons per sq. km. as compared to 118 persons per sq. km. in 1981. Out of its total population 183467 persons or 17% are settled in urban areas and remaining 924927 persons or 83% are located in rural areas. The sex ratio (male per 100 females) is worked out at 111, this ratio is also constituted 113 males in rural and 110 urban areas respectively. Town-wise urban population is depicted in table No.I. According to 1998 population census, there are total 215133 households in Badin district comprising of 1108394 persons thus giving an average size of five persons per household. The taluka wise population of 1998 is depicted in table No.II.
2.2 In Urban Sector, Badin consists of 8 localities(2 Municipal Committees & 6 Town Committees). Rural areas comprise of about 6538 settlements/ villages falling in different groups of population.
2.3 A settlement is defined as "Place of human habitation from one isolated house to a big town or a city with certain identified location and name" on other hand the village as per definition of Board of Revenue Sindh, is defined as "Place of human habitation having at least ten houses", the village in population terms could, therefore, be defined as a place of human habitation having population of about 70-100 persons (7-10 household size) and above (but not more than 5000) with certain identified location and name. The Rural Settlement pattern according to 1981 Census and projections for 1993 is given as under to see the change on basis of increase in population.
1000+ 29 100 500-999 125 231 200-499 593 1004 Below 200 5791 5203 6538 6538
2.4 The above table indicates that more than 80% settlements have population of less than 200. In fact, these settlements are less established and can be treated as farm households scattered population on agriculture land and having migratory trend from one place to another place according to their requirements based on seasons. These types of settlements are mostly established by seasonal workers, livestock holders, etc.
2.5 The rural settlement having population of 200 and above may be considered cut off point and need special attention by establishing a basic socio-economic facility in centralized locations in case it is expensive to provide such facilities at each of these settlements though these rural settlements (200-499) clearly qualify for a mosque school and provision of electricity. The rural settlements with population of less than 1,000 (500-999) may be considered for provision of primary education, electricity/ pucca road facility and the rural settlements with population of 1,000 and above should be considered for all possible civic facilities to convert them into sub urban localities and to attract surrounding scattered hamlets to voluntary migration. CHAPTER 3
Pakistan's economy has undergone considerable diversification over the year yet the agriculture sector still constitutes its back-bone. With its present contribution to GDP at 24.87 percent, Agriculture accounts for half of the total employed labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings while it serves as the base sector for the country's major industries like textiles and sugar.
The economic development of Sindh is largely dependent on the progress and growth of Agriculture sector. Sindh province contributes significantly towards over all national agriculture with 26% of the cultivated area, 17% of the cropped area and 16% of the irrigated area, 19% of the total forest area, 43% of the total production of rice, 25% of cotton, 14% wheat, 30% sugar cane, 22% other food grains, 59% of marine fish, 60% of inland fish and 28% of the livestock production originates in Sindh. Lower productivity levels per hectare continue to be problem No. 1 of crop production. Over the last ten years period, most insignificant increases are noticeable in yield of major crops over several years in view of efforts undertaken to eradicate water-logging and Salinity, provision of new seed varieties, increased use of fertilizer, pesticides, provision of agriculture extension services and on-farm water management practice and close co-ordination among farmers and agricultural field staff. Achievements of self sufficiency in major crop production must, therefore, address to the key issue bottlenecks. The enhancement of yields in the shortest possible time needs to be taken by reviewing existing programme by involving farming community in co-operative manners reducing reliance on extension staff.
The pattern of land use in a region determines crop production. Soil & climate play an important role in the management of cropping pattern of a region. Crop area used for food and cash crops can be taken as an index of the type of land system and the economic use for these crops. Land use data for latest five years reveals that the reported area in Badin district decreased by one thousand hectares in 1997-98 to about 671.6 thousand hectares. However, not all of this area is cultivable, 32.5% was reported "uncultivable" though its share was 32.2% in 1993-94.
The share of cultivated area (in the area reported) slightly decreased from 67.8% in 1993-94 to about 67.5% in 1997-98. It, however, is still much higher as compared to over all Sindh. On the contrary it reflected lower cropping intensities as compared to Sindh. From the data given in table No.1. It shows that the cropping intensities increased somewhat since last many years, but an acre of land in Badin district is not being cropped fully even once in a year. However, the cropped area increased from 271.1 thousand hectares in 1993-94 to 285.7 thousand hectares in 1997-98 with 63.0% cropping intensity.
The cropped area increased by about 5.4%. The cultivated area decreased by 0.5% during the period of five years. A small part of the area about 0.5% is being used for grazing or forest and remaining land is lying unused due to unfavourable condition or lack of irrigation water.
It is noted that the pressure of total rural population on cultivated area has increased considerably since last many years. The ratio of cultivated area per person decreased from 0.64 in 1981 to 0.41 in 1997.
There are two main crop seasons; "Kharif" and "Rabi" in Badin District. The Kharif season starts from April-May and ends in October-November while the Rabi starts from November-December and ends in April-May. However, due to regional variation in temperature, several factors (i.e varieties, availability of water, soil texture, etc.) determine the crop pattern, sowing and harvesting time. The Crops are further categorized into major and minor crops. Rice, Wheat and Sugar-cane are the major crops of the district. Sunflower, Barely, Masoor, Maize, Rapeseed & Mustard and Bajra fall in the category of minor crops.
3.2.1 RICE:
Rice is an important food as well as highly valued cash crop that earns substantial foreign exchange for the country. Besides, it is also a staple food crop of the people of Badin district. Thus it occupies the majority of cultivated land under rice. Its share in total cropped area was recorded at 26.3%. Despite the relative price having favoured the high yielding varieties, farmers traditionally grow the IRRI, and other varieties in district Badin.
The area under rice increased by 5.0% from 79.4 thousand hectares in 1996-97 to 75.4 thousand hectares in 1997-98. On the contrary, the production of rice went down significantly by 21.6% from 193.9 thousand tonnes to 151.9 thousand tonnes. Similarly yield per hectare also decreased by 17.5% from 2441 kgs. per hectare to 2014 kgs. per hectare.(Table No.2)
3.2.2 WHEAT.
The area and production of wheat for the year 1997-98 were estimated at 32.4 thousand hectares and 48.7 thousand tonnes
respectively. The yield, however, was recorded at 1502 kgs. The area under wheat significantly decreased by 25.0% during the year 1994-95. but, it slightly recovered 3.7% in the next year. The production situation generally remained a little bit un-satisfactorily over the last five years and it declined at the rate of 5.4% due to un-favourable whether condition & shortage of irrigation water. (Table No.2).
Sugar production in the Sindh province depends mostly on sugarcane crop. Keeping in view its importance, great deal of attention has been paid to increase both the area and production of sugarcane. It was reported that during the year 1997-98 the sugarcane area and production upsurged by 5.2% & 31.6% respectively. (Table No.2).
Similarly, the yield per hectare increased by 18.7% from 50.7 metric tonnes per hectare in 1996-97 to 63.5 metric tonnes per hectare in 1997-98. The increase was mainly due to the attractive incentives to the farmers provided by the sugar mill management and alsodue to an increase in support price and favourable climatic conditions prevailing in the sugarcane growing areas of district Badin.
3.2.4 COTTON:
Cotton is not only an export earning crop but it also provides raw material to local textile industries in Sindh. Its share in production is very negligible and stands at 0.3% in Sindh. The latest estimates of area and production for the year 1997-98 for Badin district were recorded at 2.7 thousand hectares and 6.8 thousand bales representing an decrease in area by 3.3% and an increase in production by 3.1% over the previous year. However, the yield per hectare increased by 6.8% from 398 kgs. per hectare in 1996-97 to 425 kgs. per hectare in 1997-98.
The information available in table No.3 depicts that Sunflower, Barely, Masoor, Maize, Rapeseed & Mustard and Bajra were the minor crops, which contributed the share of 2.8%, 1.9%, 0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3% and 0.2% in the total cropped area of the district Badin respectively during the year 1997-98.
Fertilizer is one of the major input which can enhance the crop production. The timely application and use of correct doze is an essential factor for increasing crop yields. Its contribution towards increased crop production is upto 50%.
Mostly the soils of the southern district nearer to the sea and Rann of Kutch are kalarish & saline. Besides, these are also deficit in nitrogenous and phosphatic nutrients. Nitrogen is very essential for accelerating plant vigour, producing large number of flowers, number of sound seeds per capsule and their proper size. It increases protein content of the seed as well. Phosphorous contributes in photosynthetic activities of plants, formation of seed, fibre and proper development of root system.
The recommended dozes of nitrogenous, phosphatic & potassium fertilizer vary from crop to crop and other factors like fertility of soil, topography, availability of water, use of quality seed, proper preparation of land, etc.
The information available in table No.4 on off-take of fertilizer for the period from 1993-94 to 1997-98 depicts that it grew at the rate of 2.8% per annum in Badin district. The total off-take of fertilizer (N+P+K) in Badin district in both the Kharif and Rabi seasons of 1997-98 was 39.8 thousand nutrients tonnes which was 1.2% lower than the corresponding period of the last year. However, the figures show an increase of 13.1% in off-take of fertilizer during the year 1996-97 as compared to last year where it was 34.8 thousand M.tonnes.
It is estimated that off-take of fertilizer in Badin district was 6.6% of the total off-take in Sindh.
Quality of seed is a basic requirement for increasing the production and productivity of the crop. It is a low cost input but has the potential to increase crop yield on an average by 20% as compared to non-certified seeds.
It is reported that sale of certified seeds has been declining since many years. The figures indicate (in table No.5) that the sale of wheat, paddy and cotton certified seeds drastically decreased by 75.2 and 48.0% respectively over the period of lat five years. The sale of wheat certified seed was recorded at 880 kg. mds. at the cost of Rs.404.8 thousand during the year 1997-98 which was 61.9% lesser than the preceding year. It is estimated that 356 hectares of wheat crop were cultivated under certified seed which was only 1.1% of the total cropped area under wheat in Badin district.
The distribution of improved paddy seed in Badin district was estimated at 450 kg. mds. with a total outlays of Rs.168.8 thousand during the year 1997-98. Its share to the total cropped area under paddy in Badin was 0.5%.
The most farmers use their own farm seeds. Vast majority have little access for quality control as the public agencies and market agencies do not provide more than 3 to 17 percent of good and certified seed for these crops. The less use of improved seed is one of the most serious factor for obtaining low yields.
3.5 Pesticides.
Pesticides plays major role in protecting crops from the attack of pest and disease. It is estimated that crop losses, during the growth season and after harvesting, caused by insect & pests are considerably high to the extent of 25%. Many of these losses are avoidable, if proper preventive and curative measures are taken. Plant protection measures, dependent mainly on pesticides, are grossly inadequate even for the four leading crops. The most preferred use of plant protection measures on crops are now the ground sprays both as preventive and curative measures.
Increase in cropping intensities and cultivation pattern help the development of permanent flora for retaining the sufficient quantity of seed in soil. The application of tillage operation including hand labour for control of weeds are not traditionally practised due to shortage of labour and its high costs. Weedicides, are not mostly used, however, only insignificant progressive farmers are applying weedicides in wheat crop.
It is reported in table No.6 that the area of 906 hectares under wheat crops was treated with 4.02 metric tonnes weedicide for the control of weeds which covered only 2.8% of the total area under wheat in Badin district in 1997-98.
The latest information available on use of pesticides indicate that the plant protection measures were carried out over an area of 23018 hectares under rice crop which utilized the pesticide of 26.81 metric tonnes. The coverage was only 30.5% of the total area cultivated under rice in district Badin.
Similarly, Sugar Cane crop with an area of 43.8 thousand hectares was protected from the attack of insect pests. The 48.8 metric tonnes pesticides were used with a coverage of 73.0% of the total area under sugar cane in Badin district.
3.6 Live Stock:
Live Stock is one of the major sub-sector of Agriculture and back bone of our economy. It contributes roughly one third in the total share of Agriculture GDP. Its main by-products including hides and skins have substantial potential as semi-finished products. A substantial growth on Livestock products such as milk, meat, beef, mutton, poultry and eggs have been noticed since many years.
It has been estimated that over three - fourths of the farm power comes from animals, and they are used for most of the farm operations. Bullocks provide the draft power on farm and in transport around the villages.
Most farmers traditionally keep a few heads of live stock, ranging from bullocks for draft to buffaloes or cattle for milk and poultry for eggs & meat. There is a need for increasing the heads of live stock to supplement income by selling products. Production for market even at the expense of consumption at home has become quite common in many areas of Sindh. There are pockets of organised live stock farming, such as cattle farms (or colonies) and poultry farms, located mainly in the urban areas. Most other units are of small size and not well kept.
As per live stock census 1996, the population of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in Badin district were recorded at 289080, 293659, 95491 and 575597 respectively. The population of cattle remained unchanged, where as in case of buffalos it declined by 2.2%. It grew by 19.3% for sheep and 6.7% for goats over the last live stock census enumerated in 1986. (Table No.7).
Meat, hair, hides, skins and wool are the other major products of live stock. Beef is the most important source of meat. But most of this beef is produced from discarded old bullocks, milch cattle and buffaloes, and buffalo calves. Mutton comes next in the market place, and it is provided by a variety of goats and sheep.
During the year 1997-98 it was reported that 60762 animals were slaughtered in the Badin district. Out of the total slaughtered animals, 5783 cattle, 8852 buffaloes, 10837 sheep and 35290 goats were slaughtered. It was estimated that 0.5% cattle, 0.7% buffaloes, 0.9% sheep and 2.8% goats were slaughtered out of the total live stock population in 1997-98. It was observed that slaughtering of animals cattle viz-a-viz buffaloes, sheep and goats were decreased by 46.6%, 40.3%, 65.6% and 30.9% respectively.( Table No.8) In order to meet the requirements of meat and milk, live stock farming seems to be necessary in joint venture of public/private sector or helping private sector in importing the livestock for establishing live stock farms through loans on easy terms & conditions. The Badin district posses vast potential for establishing livestock farming in the district.
3.7 Veterinary Institution.
The under nourishment, disease and internal parasites, act as a serious constraint on animal production. The animal have to be guarded against ill health, and preventive/curative measures are required to be taken regularly. The veterinary hospitals, dispensaries and centres provide preventive and curative services for disease control for live stock.
Table No.9 depicts that in Badin district 7 veterinary hospitals, 2 dispensaries and 49 veterinary centres were functioning during the year 1997-98. In all 58 veterinary institutions were available to provide health coverage and treatment facilities to the entire livestock of the district. The total number of 866 veterinary Institutions were established in the Province of Sindh which translated into the health care ratio of one veterinary Institution for 2628 live stock. It is worked out that Badin district had 6.7% of the total veterinary Institutions in Sindh.
Institution Sindh Badin %age Share Hospital 64 7 4.9% Dispensaries 115 2 1.7% Centres 687 49 7.1% Total 866 58 6.7%
The establishment of veterinary hospitals/centres at district, tahsil and taluka level has hardly contributed towards live stock disease control. Though expansion of livestock dispensaries and centres in the rural area has partially been successful in disease control, there is a need for diversification of veterinary health institutions from cities to rural areas.
The existing position indicates that 100843 animals were treated, and 76823 animals were vaccinated for the control of various diseases in veterinary institutions thereby representing 8.0% of curative and 6.1% of preventive coverage over the total live stock population in Badin district.
3.8 Inland Fisheries:
Inland fishing, the main economic activity is practised in rivers, lacks and ponds, etc. In Sindh province. Fish not only supplements protein deficiency of food but also earns foreign exchange for the country. Fisheries contribute to both the national income and export earnings.
Inland fish production has been increasing over the years. In Badin district, the inland fish production registered a decline of 9.3% to 20440 m.tonnes in 1997 over the preceding year. It is estimated that Badin district contributes 22.2% of total 91903 m.tonnes inland fish production of Sindh. It is reported that 2780 fishermen were engaged full time in the fisheries sector whereas 2260 fishermen contributed their service for part time during the year 1997. Total number of boats used for the catchment of fish were 815. Of these, 625 boats were sail type and 190 boats were row type.(Table No.10)
Per capita consumption of inland fish in the province of Sindh is very low i.e. 3.1 kg only. Keeping in view of the high rate of population growth, production from land resources will not be able to keep up with the population increase. Protein deficiency could become serious problem in near future. In order to solve this, fish production needs proper attention to exploit the abundant resources to meet the protein needs of a growing population.
3.9 Forest:
Forests are not only necessary for habitation of livestock population but instrumental in improving environmental quality and dependable source for meeting domestic energy requirements of fuel wood. Besides, it helps in conservation of soils, improve environment by controlling pollution, cause rainfall and climatic changes, supplement source of energy and stabilize gas and oil prices. The forestry programme in Sindh envisages management of forest on commercial basis in the Riverine forests, irrigation plantation forests, mangrove forests, development of Social Forestry, Agriculture, Coconut and Range lands.
Total forest area in Sindh is 1161 thousand hectares or 8.3% of the Sindh province area which is far below the desired ratio of 20 to 30 percent considered necessary for balanced ecology. The per capita forest area being 0.039 hectare in Sindh province or 0.032 hectares in the country was also quite low as compared to the world average of about 1.0 hectare.
In Badin District the forest area is spread over 11.9 thousand hectares which is 1.0% of the total area under forest in Sindh. Badin district produced 3.0 thousand cft. fire wood at the value of Rs.8.2 thousand which contributes about 0.04% of the total value Fire wood in Sindh.(Table No.11)
The total forest out-put decreased by Rs.74.9 thousand from Rs.194.3 thousand in 1995-96 to Rs.119.4 thousand in 1996-97 representing a decline of 38.6% in terms of value in Badin district.
In order to meet the standard ratio of 20-30% land as forest there is a need to bring more area of 122.4 to 189.6 thousand hectares under forest whereas in fact there is a substantial potential for growing agro-forest in Badin .
Progress in increasing forest area has been limited due to financial and social constraints. The only need to increase the forest wealth in the province of Sindh as well as in country is to extensively grow trees on farm lands. In order to involve farming community in tree growing activity, social forestry programmes have been launched through out in the country with attractive incentives in the form of subsidized supply of planting stock, partial payment of planting cost, free protection of planted areas for a limited period of time and fair return to the farmers. The tree plantation on katcha/pucca road/canal path and in Government offices, health/education institution shall continue to be encouraged.
3.10 Food Storage:
Maintenance of food grain reserves is necessary to meet the off season requirements and to stabilize the prices. To achieve this end storage facilities are required by the producers as well as by marketers, processors and the government. The farmer needs storage in order to sell when prices are favourable and reduce seasonal fluctuation in prices. The government requires stocks to carry out the country through bad years. Government role as the distributary agency of essential items necessitates enlargement of storage facilities.
The main thrust of government storage policy is to make available proper storage facilities, bring improvement in grain handling system & reduce grain losses to ensure the supply of adequate and good quality of food grains to the consumers. Food storage in public sector were provided for wheat, rice & cotton.
As a result of significant increase in domestic production and future needs of storage for important agricultural commodities and inputs, the demand for increase in storage capacity has become acute.
As per information provided in table No.12 the total storage capacity of 746120 metric tonnes was available with government of Sindh. Of these, 95% godown were owned by food department. Additionally, 0.4% H.type storage accommodation was constructed through annual development programme and 4.6% storage facility was provided at an open plinth.
Badin district had H.type storage accommodation with capacity of 4500 metric tonnes.

Electricity is essential for urban/rural development in all sectors of economy and in all walks of life. Provision of electricity to rural people in other words is a source of happiness and prosperity to rural masses. Generally, electricity in rural areas is provided in rural settlements with population of 200 and above. WAPDA is the sole authority to electrify villages under different programmes.
2. As per population census of 1998, in district Badin, there were 1559 rural settlements with population 200 and above. WAPDA has so far electrified 660 villages. There are still 897 villages which need to be electrified. CHAPTER-4
4.1 The manufacturing establishments in district Badin comprise only 5 Sugar Mills as reported during the latest census of manufacturing Industries (CMI) 1997. By comparing with the previous census that took place in 1990-91, under which 4 units were reported, it shows that 1 unit has been increased. The taluka-wise manufacturing units reported during 1997-98 are given below:
Taluka Nos. Badin 3 Matli - Tando Bago 2 Fazil Rahu - ---------- 5 ----------
4.2 There are 5 Sugar Mills in Badin district of which 3 are located in Badin taluka and 2 in Tando Bago. Badin is basically a rice growing area. However, a large area of 59989 hectares is devoted to sugarcane with production of 38,06,773 tonnes. The field production of sugarcane with yield of 60.2 tonnes per hectare happens to be on higher side compared to other areas in Sindh. The Sugarcane requirements of the mill are therefore, being fulfilled within the district itself.

4.3 An Industrial Estate has been established through Sindh Small Industries Corporation which is located in the District Headquarter Badin. 5 small units are functioning in this Industrial Estate. 3 other Small Industrial Units are functioning under self-employment schemes (other detail is given in table-4.2).
The details of Industrial groups are as under:
a) Industrial units under Small Industrial Estates:
i. Ice Factories 2 ii. Rice Mills 3
------- 5
b) Industrial units under Self-Employment Schemes: 3


5.1 Road network is considered as a vehicle for economic development and social change. It is used as an indicator for computing the stage of economic development. Efficient road network not only develops a quick and efficient transportation system but also opens up new area hitherto remained closed. It brings about social integration among rural and urban sectors and greatly assists in accessibility to basic needs i.e. schools, hospitals etc. It brings rural areas in constant touch with urban segment of society and creates better understanding necessary of social change and political awakening.
5.2 District Badin has relatively low level of roads development as compared to the other districts of Sindh and also has less road density in terms of geographical area. 5.3 The district is served by a railway loop-line which connects Badin with Hyderabad passing through Peeru Lashari, Talhar and Matli.
5.4 Important road links in Badin district are given as under:-
i. Road from Badin to Ali Bunder via Lawari and Kadhan. ii. Road from Badin to Khoski via Nindo Shahir. iii. Road from Badin to Thatta via Golarchi and Sujawal. iv. Road from Badin to Digri via Tando Bago. v. Road from Matli to Digri via Tando Ghulam Ali. vi. Road from Badin to Hyderabad via Talhar, Dando and Matli. vii. Road from Badin to Pangrio via Tando Bago. viii.Road from Badin to Bhugra Memon via Seerani. ix. Road from Kario Ganhwar to Ahmed Rajo via Golarchi. x. Road from Matli to Phulkara. xi. Road from Tando Ghulam Ali to Tando Allahyar via Chambar.
5.5 Among the means of transportation, buses, motor-cars, jeeps, vans, heavy trucks, mini trucks, bullocks carts, camel carts and donkey carts are used. Most of the commercial goods are transported by loading trucks, Suzuki pick-ups, mini trucks and railways.
5.6 In June 1999, Badin had a total length of 1412 Kms. of metalled road while katcha road mileage is 148.4 Kms. The over all position by type of roads is as under:-
S.NO. ITEMS METALLED KATCHA TOTAL ROAD IN ROAD IN LENGTH KM. KM. KM.---- ------- -------- ------- ------
i. Provincial Roads -- -- --ii. Rural Roads 661.47 79.60 --iii. Farm to Market Road 750.53 68.80 819.33 --------------------------------- Grand Total: 1412.00 148.40 1560.40 ---------------------------------
Details of above roads (taluka-wise) are given in Table No.1.

5.7 For identifying the development gaps there are certain standards about adequacy of roads which are as under:-
i) 0.50 km. of Pucca road per one sq. km. of geographic area.
ii) Road density based on cultivable area. (2. Km. per 1 Sq. Km.).
iii) Road density based on cropped area.(1. Km. per 1 Sq. Km.). iv Road network connecting settlements of 1000+ and above 500+ population.
v) Road length per 10,000 population.
vi) Movement of persons goods and services.
5.8 The available international standard related to agriculture postulates that there should be atleast 2 km. of road for every of cultivable area. Modification of this standard appears necessary from two angles: Firstly, this standard includes katcha roads as well whereas we would like to evolve a standard in terms of metalled road only. Secondly, the standard is related to cultivable area which is invariably greater than cropped area. The cropped area standard of 1 km. of metalled road per of cropped area is also misleading. As in irrigated area, it must be much higher than in deserted/hilltorian areas. However, the settlements located in unirrigated zone also require special attention and connecting of 1000+ & 500+ villages appears appealing except some settlements located in unproductive zones (desert, hill tracts) the settlements lying therein with population 1000+ should at least be connected.
5.9 Under the population standard, urban settlements with large population would get more roads. However, the data of movement of persons, goods and services is not easily available.
5.10 Under these circumstances, the standard based on geographical area is most suited i.e. (0.5 km. of pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographical area).
5.11 Super imposing the chosen/agreed standard of 0.5 km. of metalled Road for one sq. km. of geographical area, we need a total of 3365 kms. of metalled road. With the existing road length pitched at 1412 kms. additional road length of 1953 kms. as per (development gap) is required to be constructed to meet the required standard in District Badin. Details are given at Table No.2.
5.12 A simple taluka wise analysis of the road situation in the district is given in Table No.2. The table shows pucca road densities in terms of K.M. per of geographical area wherein it is evident that S.F. Rahoo (Golarchi) taluka is by far the most back ward taluka in so far as pucca road facility is concerned. The pucca road density for this taluka works out as 0.16 K.M per of geographical area as compared to the respective figures of 0.212 K.M for the district.
5.13 According to High ways Department's road statistics Sindh Province had a total of 20781.45 Km of pucca road upto June 1998. Out of this, 1412 kms. (6.79%) were in Badin District which compare well with its population share of 3.69%. Comparative position of road length and densities in the geographical areas of various districts may be seen in Table No.3. CHAPTER-6
The Majority of Schools in the District belonging to Government are functioning under the supervision of District Education Officer (Male/Female). Education is basic right of the people, therefore Primary Education for Children male/Female is mandatory and it is provided free of cost in the province of Sindh. The formal Educational structure in Sindh is divided into four main streams, the first level known as primary refers to Grade I-V for age of school going population 5-9 years, 2nd stage includes middle secondary, elementary and higher secondary. The third stream is called college education which consists of higher education. After completion of the college education, a candidate is awarded Bachelor degree in Arts/Commerce or Science. Duration of post secondary education varies in Technical and Professional fields, the Poly Technic Institutes offer four years B. Tech course. A Bachelor degree in medicines requires five years education. Similarly Bachelor degree courses in Engineering, Agriculture and Veterinary medicines are awarded of four years duration after the intermediate examination.
An additional two years after the bachelor degree are required to acquire a master degree in Arts/Commerce or Science leading to award of Ph.D degree which may require two or three more years after the completion of master degree course.
In the existing Primary Schools network during 1997-98 in Badin, there were total 2640 schools including mosque schools, out of which 2473 schools were located in rural areas and 167 schools in urban areas, urban schools of total 167 were further bifurcated into 133 male and 34 female schools. Total primary enrolment of 94574 souls was noted (64992 male and 29582 female) in the district, 4700 teaching staff was engaged in providing primary education including 735 female teachers.
Teacher student ratio worked out on the basis of information received from the Education Department stands at 1:16 for male and 1:40 for female and 1:20 for both sexes respectively.
The participation rate at primary level calculated on the basis of population projection stands at 66% for male and 34% for female; over all participation is worked out to 51%.
In Badin District, there were 229 closed/on paper Primary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 1359 boys and 146 girls schools were lacking toilets. 1488 schools were without drinking water facility. 1552 primary schools including 127 girls schools are without boundary wall. 766 schools are functioning either in rental building or are shelterless. 461 schools require repair, where as 83 schools were working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
The Social Action programme SAP has taken care of the idea by enhancing female enrolments and developed following criteria which will boost up the female primary education.
(a) The first school in a area shall be established as mixed school. The Second School in the same areas shall be girls school.
(b) No existing primary school within the range of 1.5 km.
(c) The age group population of 5-9 years must be 100.
For universalization of primary education there is need of opening new schools which will provide additional enrolment resulting in increase of literacy rate. There is need of reactivation of closed schools. And also there is need of resorting the existing enrolment for which reconstruction improvement in existing schools is required.
To achieve the goal following are the recommendations.
1. Stoppage of transfer/deputation of teacher from village schools to urban area or place of their choice.
2. The closed schools located at remote places/or in a settlements below criteria and having no school building may officially be declared as closed and a new school may be established at a deserving rural settlement that falls on the population criteria etc.
3. In future, while appointing primary school teachers (male/female), preference may be given to local area teachers. Due to this at least "non local teachers" will not be the reason for closure of the schools.
1. Buildings may only be provided to already established schools functioning in a temporary accommodation running under trees in Jhugis or rented building and having atleast enrolment of 60 children.
2. Furniture/Electricity/Water/Toilet/Latrine facility may be provided to such an established schools that have suitable building and having no such facilities in the first instance.
3. Re-adjustment of existing school buildings may be done through administrative steps. A simple executive order issued for introduction of double shift programme in urban/rural locations will change the scenario and will also save the anticipated development expenditure to be incurred on provision of separate building facility for boys & girls.
4. The boys school buildings located in rural settlements with 1000 and above population can be provided with additional class rooms, if required, in order to make the school five roomed.
1. Instead of opening new primary schools for boys (alongwith construction of a new building) in rural settlements of 500-999, following strategy is proposed to be adopted:
a) In case of a building available for girls school, 2 shifts approach may be adopted. This will result in full utilization of the available school buildings.
b) Only mosque schools may be opened, where there is a gap in rural settlements below 500 population at the initial stage. After three years the mosque schools that attain an enrolment of 50 or more, (based on evaluation may be converted into a primary school. The building may be provided to such school where there is no school building already available in the village.
3. No new building may be provided where the schools can run in shifts in the existing buildings of a primary school for boys or girls. This type of administrative action will reduce the development cost to be incurred on construction of new buildings.
In urban area co-education at primary level may be introduced and female teacher may be appointed/posted in primary schools.
Secondary education consists of middle/high schools. In its existing position there were 126 middle schools (98 male and 28 female) in district Badin with enrolment of 6166 and 342 teachers as per information available for 97-98. There were 2 Elementary School working in the district, One in Golarchi and one in Tando Bago with enrolment of 163 and 11 teachers.
As regards the high schools, there were 47 high schools (40 for male and 7 for female) in the district during 1997-98. There were working 837 teachers to coupe with the enrolment of 16729.
In Badin District, there were 14 closed/on paper Secondary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 31 boys and 9 girls schools were lacking toilets. 55 schools were without drinking water facility. 44 Secondary schools including 8 girls schools are without boundary wall. 20 schools are functioning either in rental building or shelterless. 52 schools require repair, where as 8 schools are working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
In order to provide secondary education, urban locations must be covered with secondary school of male as well as female in case of non availability of school, initially middle school may be provided which could be up-graded to high school later on as per requirement. There is one Higher Secondary School in Badin district.
There are 5 colleges, out of which 3 colleges are reserved for boys and 2 colleges for girls having 4370 students, same colleges are enriched with teaching staff of 40 male and 16 for female in the district Badin.
Presently, in Badin there is one Poly Technic Institute and there are 4 Commercial training centre having enrolment of 104 students. Beside this 3 vocational institute are working in the district. CHAPTER-7

7.1 District Badin has 1 major hospital, 3 Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals, 12 Rural Health Centres, 38 Basic Health Units and 6 Dispensaries with total bed capacity of 364. There are 257 doctors and 670 para medical staff in public sector who extend health services to 353003 outdoor and 9685 indoor patients in the district.
7.2 On the basis of existing health facilities, Taluka-wise details of population per health/bed facility are given in Table No.8.
7.3 The Civil Hospital Located in Badin city provides health facilities to Badin city, its adjoining areas and whole of the district; besides, other urban localities are either covered with T.H.Q., R.H.C or B.H.U. The Town-wise coverage of Health facility is given in Table No. 1.A.
7.4 By the end of December, 1998, the public sector health institutions in the District and other urban centres consisted of 12 R.H.Cs, 38 B.H.Us and 6 dispensaries. In addition to above, one BHU is under construction in the District. The Taluka-wise details are given in table No.1.B. As per policy of the government, a BHU has been provided in the every Union Council.
7.5 It may be pointed out that forty four Union Councils of the district have already been covered with Health Facility of RHC or BHU. However, there are still number of big rural settlements/villages which go without health facilities. The taluka wise Union councils, covered with Health facility, is given in Table No. 7.
7.6 As per prescribed criteria, a Dispensary can be established in a rural settlement with population of 1000 having no health facility within the radius of 2-3 Keeping in view the rural settlement pattern of the population census 1998, the following 100 rural settlements are categorized as big settlements with a population of 1000 & above in Badin:
Settlement No.of Covered with DevelopmentSize Settlements Health Facilities Gap As per Population (1998) ----------- ------------- ------------------ --------------
1000 & above 100 61 39

7.7 Out of 100 settlements, 61 are covered with health facility. The rest of 39 settlements are yet to be covered in the Badin district.
7.8 In order to make programme a success, the local community participation is necessary. They can share in the development activity by providing piece of land for construction of health facility and labour, etc.
7.9 The Government has accorded the highest priority to preventive programmes such as EPI, AIDS Control Programme, Maleria Control Programme and Health Education. The diseases covered under the EPI programme are the major killers of children. Efforts are being made to cover most of infants under this programme. It is under execution since 1979. The major objectives of the project are as under:-
(i) Vaccination of 90% new born infants and 100% remaining 12-23 months children against Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Measles and Childhood Tuberculosis.
(ii) Vaccination of 70% pregnant ladies and 100% of child bearing age ladies with atleast two doses of Tetanus Toxoid in order to eliminate neo-natal tetanus. CHAPTER-8
8.1 Potable Water Supply is a pre-requisite for the health of people. Lack of proper drinking Water Supply and Sanitation in rural as well urban areas has caused wide spread water borne diseases of which diarrhoea (among small children) happens to be a major killer. The diseases are transmitted by water and poor sanitation which deplete human energy resulting in sickness reducing thereby the productivity of the people.
8.2 Water Supply is vitally important sector for the urban and rural population of the district. The rural population distribution in district is quite unique in the sense that it has fewer larger villages and a very large number of small settlement most of which can hardly be called "Villages"; they are essentially on the farm clusters of population. According to present arrangements, Water Supply and Drainage facilities are being provided to the people by the Departments i.e. Public Health Engineering Department and Rural Development Department. The break up of size of village/settlement with %age share is as under:-
Size of Villages Number Percentage
i) 100 - 1000. 1862 94.90% ii) 1000 and above 100 5.10% Total: 1962 100% URBAN WATER SUPPLY:8.3 All Urban localities in district Badin are covered with water supply through a piped water system. Besides, non-mechanised source of water supply like hand pumps/wells etc. are also used by the people. 15 schemes of water supply have been completed upto year 1996-97 and presently three schemes are on-going at the estimated cost of Rs.19.108 million during the year 1997-98. Details of completed water supply scheme (taluka-wise) are given in table No.1.
8.4 So far provision of urban drainage facility in Badin district is concerned, all the urban localities are covered with drainage/sewerage or open pucca drain system. 11 schemes of drainage have been completed upto year 1996-97. Taluka-wise details of completed and on-going schemes is given in table No.1.
8.5 The water supply facility in the rural areas of Sindh through a piped water system is to be provided according to the criteria which gives priority to "A rural settlement with population of 1000 and above preferably having brackish ground water". In Badin district, 100 rural settlements having population upto 1000 are categorised into 3 type of settlements in descending order according to their size of population taking into account the quality of ground water.
8.6 Presently, out of 24 rural settlements having population 2000 and above, 18 settlements have been covered by the water supply facility. In second category which includes 15 settlements with population ranging between 1999 to 1500, 8 rural settlements have been facilitated by water supply schemes while in the third category out of 61 rural settlements, 19 have been covered by such facility. Thus, out of total 100 rural settlements 45 settlements are covered with the required facility of water supply as reported upto June 1997. Taluka-wise details of uncovered settlements and their quality of water is given in table No.3.
8.7 For providing the water supply to uncovered rural settlements, 4 schemes are under implementation at the estimated cost of Rs.16.727 million during the current year i.e. 1997-98 leaving development gap of 51 uncovered villages. According to our criteria, 44 additional settlements with brackish water will require water supply schemes on priority basis. Details of completed,on-going schemes and number of brackish water settlements (taluka wise) are given at table No.2 and 3. 8.8 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed water supply schemes (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.5.
8.9 Drainage system in the rural areas of Sindh under the prescribed criteria is provided for "A rural settlement with population 1000 & above preferably having water system". Presently out of total 100 rural settlements, 18 settlements have been covered by the drainage facility. Under the first category, out of 24 rural settlements having population 2000 and above, 11 settlements are facilitated by the drainage facility. In second category, only 4 settlements out of 15 have been covered with drainage and under third category out of 61 rural settlements, 3 settlements have the facility by drainage system. Taluka-wise details of completed drainage schemes are given in table No.4. 8.10 For providing the Rural Drainage facility to the uncovered rural settlements another 3 schemes are under implementation at the estimated cost of Rs.19.329 million during the current year (i.e.1997-98), leaving a development gap of 79 rural settlements. According to our criteria, 25 settlement with water supply schemes will require drainage facility on priority basis. The details of taluka wise completed, on-going schemes and uncovered settlements are given in table 2 & 4.
8.11 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed drainage scheme (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.6.

8.12 More than 86% population of rural Sindh resides in villages upto 1000 population. Rural Development Department, Govt. of Sindh has been charged with the responsibility of providing Water Supply and Sanitation facilities in these settlements. Presently, it executes two Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Projects funded by the World Bank and UNICEF respectively. Through these projects, potable water is provided by installing hand pumps while Sanitation facilities are provided by constructing household latrines and imparting hygiene Education in villages having population of upto one thousand souls.
8.13 In District Badin there are a number of 1862 villages with population from 100 to 1000. Rural Development Department has so far provided 210 water supply Schemes through hand pumps in 135 villages covering 0.032 million population. This leaves the development gap of a large number of small settlements i.e. 1727 villages where this facility is yet to be provided. Taluka wise details are given at table No.7.
8.14 The Rural Development Department has also helped in forming effective Village Organisation to function collectively and carry forward the participatory development approach. The concept is that by using both local and external resources and working together the development of the villages can take place. In sanitation, households contribute more than the government share. The Rural Development Department component of this project has adopted bold initiatives in Community Participation and Co-ordination with other institutions (government and non-government) to bring a range of services to project villages.
The project has following components:-
1. Community Development. 2. Health Development. 3. Water Supply. 4. Sanitation. 5. District Co-ordination Committees. 6. Training. 7. Institutional Strengthening. 8. Documentation.
8.15 Under the two projects aided by World Bank and UNICEF, village Organisations are formed. The hand pumps and sanitation schemes are operated and maintained by the communities themselves.
8.16 In most of the urban areas the problem is more of inadequate and inefficient distribution rather than that of water supply availability. Attention should there fore be focused on a better distribution system alongwith an augmentation of suppers.
8.17 In case of sewerage and drainage, the situation is much worse and is aggravated by the expansion of water supply facilities. Provision of sewerage & drainage disposal facilities has therefore to match the programme of water supply.
8.18 Priority should be given to those areas where sweet ground water is not available at a reasonable depth and where water has to be fetched from distance.( Details are given in Table No.3) Similarly, Special consideration has to be given to areas where the rural population presently relies on surface water which is unfit for human consumption.
8.19 In areas where people have installed their own hand pump, priority should be given to sanitational disposal schemes. Piped water supply system is to be restricted to bigger village with a population ranging from 3000 to 5000. Hand pumps are being provided to smaller villages and initial delivery systems should be based on community stand-post and storage tanks.
8.20 Piped water-supply should be provided only at places where underground water is brackish, but here also the quality of material used and the workmanship must be improved. Frequent water leakages due to use of sub-standard pipes and defective implementation of schemes have created further problems through collection of water in the residential areas and damages of the buildings.
8.21 Water-supply through the implementation of water-supply schemes needs to be monitored regularly to ensure that the water is fit for human consumption. This is desirable specially because the water-supply schemes in Sindh do not provide for the filtration or chlorination process. Long-term effect of such water on health of the people needs to be studied.
8.22 Top priority be assigned to the sanitary disposal of sewage and waste-water which has collected in the form of stinking ponds in the vicinity of the towns and the larger rural settlements. The sewage so collected can neither be disposed off through land treatment (since it may cause soil sickness) nor it could be pumped into the flowing canals due to the fear of water pollution. The sewage ponds give rise to mosquito breeding and are likely to pollute the subsoil water which is the source of drinking water in this area. As such the top priority/attention should be given to solve this problem. The sewage could be treated in the oxidation ponds or in the digesting chambers. It would then be easy to dispose off the treated water into the flowing canals.
8.23 The Public Health Engineering Department (PHED)is responsible for planning, designing and construction of Water Supply Schemes in the province essentially in the larger villages having population of 1000 and above as per prescribed criteria. Sanitation/Drainage schemes are also provided by PHED in villages above 1000 persons where water supply schemes have been already provided. Details of such villages already covered/uncovered through drainage may be seen in table No.4.
8.24 Normally after completion of the schemes Public Health Engineering Department used to hand over the completed schemes to the local councils for operation and maintenance who under took maintenance task with great reluctance due to their unsound financial position, lack of technical know-how and doubts about the quality of construction work of completed schemes. As a result most of the completed schemes are poorly maintained by local councils and are either being partly run or closed down without any public utility.
8.25 Present Government has launched the Social Action Programme (SAP) in the Country which aims to improve the quality of life particularly in rural areas by providing basic amenities, such as, primary education, health care, safe drinking water and sanitation.
8.26 The Provincial Government has adopted a "unified policy" which imbibes the community to take operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Schemes on sustainable basis and as such has decided the following measures:-
(a) That all the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme will be dealt on Community basis.
(b) The Community will be motivated to form village development organisations (VDOS) which will closely associated with the implementation of the schemes at all stages and the completed schemes will be taken over by them for O/M and Management.
(c) In view of unsatisfactory financial conditions of most of the rural communities, it has been decided by the Present Government to provide cost of electricity and non routine maintenance, whereas "Community" will bear the cost of engaging operators/personnel and routine maintenance through recovery of user charges from the consumers.


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