Saturday, March 12, 2005

Sanghar Economic profile


Chapter Title Page No.
District Map I District at Glance 1 - 3
Chapter-1 Geographical Characteristics 4 - 5 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Location 1.3 Topography-(Tract/Zone) 1.4 Climate 1.5 Administrative set up
Chapter-2 Demographic Characteristics 6 - 10
2.1 Population 1998 2.2 Settlement pattern (size) urban/rural. - Statistical Tables 9 - 10
Chapter-3 Agriculture 11 - 36
3.1 Land Utilization 12 3.2 Crop Position 13 3.2.1 Wheat 13 3.2.2 Cotton 13 3.2.3 Rice 14 3.2.4 Sugarcane 14 3.2.5 Minor Crops 15 3.3 Fertilizer 15 3.4 Improved Seed 16 3.5 Pesticides 17 3.6 Livestock 18 3.7 Veterinary Institution 20 3.8 Inland Fisheries 21 3.9 Forest 22 3.10 Food Storage 23 -- Statistical Tables 25 - 36
Chapter-3-A Village Electrification 37
Chapter-4 Manufacturing 38 - 43
4.1 Existing Manufacturing 4.2 Industrial Small Scale Units 4.3 District potentials. - Statistical Tables 41 - 43
Chapter-5 Road Net work (Normal/F.T.M) 44 - 49
5.1 Existing Situation 5.2 Road Standards 5.3 Analysis 5.4 Development Gaps - Statistical Tables 48 - 49
Chapter-6 Education 50 - 58
6.1 Primary Education 6.2 Secondary Education 6.3 High Secondary Education 6.3 College Education 6.4 Technical/Commercial/Vocational Education 6.5 Professional Education 6.6 Medical Education 6.7 Establishment of General University 6.8 Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education - Statistical Tables 56 - 58
Chapter-7 Health 59 - 75
7.1 Existing Position of Health alongwith development gap. - Statistical Tables 62 - 75
Chapter-8 Water Supply & Drainage/ 76 - 90 Sewerage
8.1 Urban Water Supply 8.2 Urban Drainage 8.3 Rural Water Supply 8.4 Rural Drainage 8.5 Facilities provided through Rural Development Department. 8.6 Policy Issues/Options. - Statistical Tables 84 - 90 DISTRICT AT GLANCEGENERAL INFORMATIONDISTRICT SANGHAR
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------
Sub-Division Nos. 4 Talukas " 6 Union Councils " 44 Market Committee " - Deh " 452 Villages/Settlements " 3,261 Metropolitan/Municipal Corp: " - Municipal Committees " 4 Town Committees " 10 2. AREA Sq. kms. 10,728
Population (Total) Nos. 14,20,022 Male " 7,43,553 Female " 6,76,469 Rural " 1,09,8396 Male " 5,76,245 Female " 5,22,151
Urban " 3,21,626 Male " 1,67,308 Female " 1,54,318
Population Density Per sq. km. 132
Area Hectare
Cotton " 1,24,308 Rice " 3,826 Wheat " 1,43,620 Sugarcane " 10,840 Jawar " 1,329 Barley " - Rape Seed & Mustered " 11,546 Gram " -
Cotton Bales 5,24,935 Rice M.Tons 7,733 Wheat " 3,48,216 Sugarcane " 6,73,718 Jawar " 762 Barley " - Rape Seed & Mustered " 8,673 Gram " -
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------ 5. INDUSTRIAL SETUP
Sugar Factories Nos. 1 Cotton Ginning Factories " 9 Rice Mills " - Oil Mills " 3 Ice Factories " - Others " 7
Villages Electrified(200 & above) Nos. 915
Development Gap (200 & above) " 524
7. COMMUNICATION: Kms. 2,282
Mettled Road " 1,974
Un-Mettled Road (Katcha) " 308
Primary Schools Nos. 3,047
a) Male " 2,714 b) Female " 333
Middle Schools " 152
a) Male " 109 b) Female " 43
High Schools " 65
a) Male " 61 b) Female " 14
Civil Hospital/Other Major Nos. 1 Hospitals
Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals " 4
Rural Health Centres " 10
Basic Health Units " 50
Dispensaries (Govt.) " 9
(2)S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------
Rural Water Supply Schemes Nos. 71
Rural W/S Coverage 1000+ " 71 Population Settlements
Development Gap* " 91
Rural Drainage Scheme (Completed) " 30
Rural Drainage Coverage 1000+ " 30 Pop. Settlement
Development Gap (1000) Settlement " 132


1.1 Sanghar district derives its name from its district headquarters town Sanghar. The district lies between 25 - 30' to 26-28' north latitudes and 68 - 24' to 70 - 13' east longitudes. The district is bounded on the north by Khairpur and Nawab Shah districts, on the south by Umer Kot, Mir Pur Khas and Hyderabad districts and on the west by Nawab Shah and Hyderabad districts and on the East by India. The total geographical area of district is 10,728 Sq. Kms. with population density of 132 persons per sq. kms.
1.2. The most area of the district is fertile plain formed by the Canal except eastern desert area from Jamrao Head to Khipro Taluka. The soil is sandy with hard clay loams and some part is desert. The average elevation of the area is about 50 meters above sea level.
1.3. Like other Districts of Middle Sindh, Sanghar district has extremely cold and hot climate. However, there is slight variation between the climate of north and the south-western parts of the district. The south western portion enjoys the advantage of the sea breeze. The summer season commences from April and continues till October. May, June and July are the hottest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperature during this period is 42 & 25 degree centigrade respectively. The months of August and September are stuffy and suffocating. December, January and February are the coldest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures for these months are 25 degree centigrade and 8 degree centigrade respectively. The bright sunshine makes the district, in winter, one of the healthiest parts of the region. The monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation, recorded at Sanghar, during 1993 is mentioned as under:-
TABLE NO. 1.1. ANNUAL TEMPERATURES AND PRECIPITATION IN DISTRICT SANGHAR DURING 1993_______________________________________________________________ Mean temperature (C)Month Maximum Minimum Precipitation (millimetres)_______________________________________________________________
January 24.6 8.5 2.00February 29.9 9.9 4.00March 33.0 14.0 4.00April 38.9 19.6 3.00May 44.9 25.0 1.00June 43.7 27.3 6.00July 41.1 27.1 82.00August 31.6 26.2 52.00September 40.2 25.7 35.00October 37.5 18.2 5.00November 33.1 13.5 2.00December 27.1 7.5 2.00Annual 35.4 19.8 198.00________________________________________________________________
Source: Meteorological Department, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
1.4 The district of Sanghar comprises 6 talukas viz. Sanghar, Shahdadpur, Tando Adam, Khipro, Jam Nawaz Ali and Sinjhoro. Administrative set up is based on 4 sub divisions, namely Sanghar, Shahdadpur, Khipro and Tando Adam. There are 4 Municipal Committees, 10 Town Committees, 44 Union Councils and 452 dehs in the district. CHAPTER-2
2.1 The Sanghar District is spread over 10728, that is, 7.61% of the total geographical area of Sindh, but its share in total Population in 1998 accounted for 1420022 souls or 4.73% of the provincial population. It increased by 53.89% during 1981-98 intercensal period a span of 17 years at an average annual growth rate of 2.57%. In accordance with the land area of Sanghar district i.e. 10728 sq. kms. there is density of 132 persons per sq. km. as compared to 86 persons per sq. km. in 1981. Out of its total population 321626 persons or 23% are settled in urban areas and remaining 1098396 persons or 77% are located in rural areas. The sex ratio (male per 100 females) is worked out at 110, this ratio is also constituted 110 males in rural and 108 in urban areas. Town-wise urban population is depicted in table No.I. According to 1998 population census, there are total 256400 households in Sanghar district comprising of 1420022 persons thus giving an average size of six persons per household. The taluka wise population of 1998 is depicted in table No.II.
2.2 The urban sector of district Sanghar consists of 14 localities (4 M.Cs. 10 T.Cs.). Rural areas comprise of about 3261 Settlements/Villages falling in different groups of population. Settlement is defined as "Place of human habitation from one isolated house to a big town or a city with certain identified location and name" on other hand the village as per definition of Board of Revenue Sindh, is as a "Place of human habitation having at least ten houses". The village in population terms is therefore defined as a place of human habitation having population of about 70-100 persons (7-10 household size) and above (but not more than 5,000) with certain identified location and name. The Rural settlement pattern according to 1981 Census and projections for 1993 are given as under to see the change on basis of increase in population.
POPULATION GROUP/ NO. OF SETTLEMENTSETTLEMENT SIZE 1981 19931000+ 50 118500-999 172 162200-499 657 1634Below 200 2382 1678TOTAL 3261 3261
2.3 The above table indicates that more than 50% settlements have population of less than 200 souls. In fact, these settlements are less established and can be treated as farm households scattered population on agricultural lands and having migratory trend from one place to another according to their requirements based on seasons. These types of settlements are mostly established by seasonal workers and livestock holders etc.
2.4 The rural settlements having population of 200+ may be considered cut off point and need special attention by conglomerating basic Socio-economic facility in centralized locations in case it is expensive to provide such facilities at each of these settlements though these rural settlements (200-499) clearly qualify for a mosque school and provision of electricity. The rural settlements with population of less than 1,000 (500-999) may be considered for provision of education, electricity/pucca road facility and the rural settlements with population of 1,000 and above should be considered for all possible civic amenities to convert them into sub urban localities and to attract surrounding scattered hamlets to voluntary migration. The list of rural settlements with population of 1,000 and above prepared on the basis of population projections for 1998 is appended as annexure-A for reference/selection of locations for providing the above said facilities on merit basis. The district functionaries may further devise them strategy keeping in view the existing facilities. However, the criteria for selection of facilities is provided as Annexure-B. CHAPTER 3
Pakistan's economy has undergone considerable diversification over the years, yet the agriculture sector still constitutes its back-bone. With its present contribution to GDP at 24.87 percent, Agriculture accounts for half of the total employed labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings while it serves as the base sector for the country's major industries like textiles and sugar.
The economic development of Sindh is largely dependent on the progress and growth of Agriculture sector. Sindh province contributes significantly towards overall national agriculture with 26% of the cultivated area, 17% of the cropped area and 16% of the irrigated area, 19% of the total forest area, 43% of the total production of rice, 25% of cotton, 14% wheat, 30% sugar cane, 22% other food grains, 59% of marine fish, 60% of inland fish and 28% of the livestock production originates in Sindh. Lower productivity levels per hectare continue to be problem No. 1 of crop production. Over the last ten years period, most insignificant increases are noticeable in yield of major crops in view of efforts under taken to eradicate water-logging and Salinity, provision of new seed varieties, increased use of fertilizer, pesticides, provision of agriculture extension services and on-farm water management practice and close co-ordination among farmers and agricultural field staff. Achievements of self sufficiency in major crop production must, therefore, address to the key issue bottlenecks. The enhancement of yields in the shortest possible time needs to be taken by reviewing existing programme by involving farming community in co-operative manners reducing reliance on extension staff.
The pattern of land use in a region determines crop production. Soil & climate play an important role in the management of cropping pattern of a region. Crop area used for food and cash crops can be taken as an index of the type of land system and the economic use for these crops. Land use data for latest five years given in table No.1. reveals that the reported area in Sanghar remained unchanged since 1993-94 at 1072.8 thousand hectares. However, not all of this area is cultivable. 57.6% was reported "uncultivable" in 1997-98 as its share was almost same in 1993-94.
The share of cultivated area (in the area reported) slightly decreased from 42.4% in 1993-94 to about 42.3% in 1997-98. It, however, is still a little bit higher as compared to over all Sindh reflecting higher cropping intensities. From the data given in table No.1, though the cropping intensities increased somewhat since last many years, but an acre of land in Sanghar district is not being cropped fully even once in a year. However, the cropped area increased from 324.2 thousand hectares in 1993-94 to 341.2 thousand hectares in 1997-98 whereas the cropping intensity is recorded at 75.2%.
The cropped area increased by about 6.4%, on the contrary the cultivated area also slightly decreased by 0.5% during the period of five years. A small part of the area (about 0.7%) is being used for grazing or forest and remaining land is lying unused due to unfavourable condition or lack of irrigation water.
It is noted that the pressure of total rural population on cultivated area has increased considerably since last many years. The ratio of cultivated area per person decreased from 0.34 in 1981 to 0.27 in 1997.
There are two main crop seasons; "Kharif" and "Rabi" in Sanghar District. The Kharif season starts from April-May and ends in October-November while the Rabi starts from November-December and ends in April-May. However due to regional variation in temperature, several factors i.e varieties, availability of water, soil texture etc determine the crop pattern, sowing and harvesting time. The Crops are further categorized into major and minor crops. Wheat, Cotton, Rice, Sugar-cane are the major crops of the district. Bajra, Jowar, Rapeseed & Mustard, Onion, Sunflower and Masoor fall in the category of minor crops.
3.2.1 WHEAT.
Wheat is also a staple food crop of the people of Sanghar district. Thus it occupies the majority of cultivated land under wheat. Its share in total cropped area was recorded at 42.0%. The area and production of wheat for the year 1997-98 were estimated at 143.6 thousand hectares and 349.2 thousand tonnes respectively. The yield, however, was recorded at 2432 kgs.
The area under wheat significantly declined by 3.7% during the year 1994-95. However, it recovered the area by 4.0% in the next year. The production situation generally remained satisfactorily over the last five years and it grew at the rate of 4.7% due to favourable whether condition at sowing times (Table No.2).
3.2.2 COTTON:
Cotton is not only an export earning crop but it also provides raw material to local textile industries in Sanghar as well as Sindh. Its share in production stands at 22.5% in Sindh. The latest estimates of area and production for the year 1997-98 for Sanghar district were recorded at 124.3 thousand hectares and 524.9 thousand bales representing an increase in area by 0.5% and an increase in production by 10.6% over the previous year. However, the yield per hectare increased by 10.0% from 653 kgs. per hectare in 1996-97 to 718 kgs. per hectare in 1997-98 as the crop was remained safe from the attack of leaf curl virus in the cotton growing areas of Sanghar district.(Table No.2)
3.2.3 RICE:
Rice is an important food as well as highly valued cash crop that earns substantial foreign exchange for the country. Despite the relative price having favoured the high yielding varieties, farmers traditionally grow the IRRI, and other varieties in district Sanghar.
The area under rice decreased by 18.3% from 4.7 thousand hectares in 1996-97 to 3.8 thousand hectares in 1997-98. Besides, the production of rice also went down significantly by 25.9% from 10.4 thousand tonnes to 7.7 thousand tonnes. Similarly yield per hectare also decreased by 9.3% from 2227 kgs. per hectare to 2021 kgs. per hectare.(Table No.2)
Sugar production in the Sindh province depends mostly on sugarcane crop. Keeping in view its importance, great deal of attention has been paid to increase both the area and production of sugarcane. It was reported that during the year 1997-98 the sugarcane area and production upsurged by 10.2% & 19.7% respectively.(Table No.2)
Similarly, the yield per hectare which increased by 10.6% from 57.3 metric tonnes per hectares in 1996-97 to 62.3 metric tonnes per hectare in 1997-98. The increase was mainly due to the attractive incentives to the farmers provided by the sugar mill management and also an increase in support price and favourable climatic condition prevailing in the sugarcane growing areas of district Sanghar.( Table No.2)
The information available in table No.3 depicts that Rape Seed & Mustard, Bajra, Onion, Sunflower, Jawar and Masoor, were the minor crops, which significantly contributed the share of 3.3%, 2.0%, 1.1%, 0.6%, 0.4% and 0.4% in the total cropped area of the district Sanghar respectively during the year 1997-98.(Table No.3)
Fertilizer is one of the major input which can enhance the crop production. The timely application and use of correct doze is an essential factor for increasing crop yields. Its contribution towards increased crop production is about 50%.
Mostly the soils of Sanghar district are fertile but there are also deficit in nitrogenous and phosphatic nutrients. Nitrogen is very essential for accelerating plant vigour, producing large number of flowers, number of sound seeds per capsule and their proper size. It increases protein content of the seed as well. Phosphorous contributes in photosynthetic activities of plants, formation of seed, fibre and proper development of root system.
The recommended dozes of nitrogenous, phosphatic & potassium fertilizer varies from crop to crop and other factors like fertility of soil, topography, availability of water, use of quality seed, proper preparation of land etc.
The information available in table No.4 on off-take of fertilizer for the period from 1993-94 to 1997-98 depicts that it grew at the rate of 6.8% per annum in Sanghar district. The total off-take of fertilizer (N+P+K) in Sanghar district in both the Kharif and Rabi seasons of 1997-98 was 82.5 thousand nutrients tonnes which was 20.6% higher than the corresponding period of the last year. It is estimated that off-take of fertilizer in Sanghar district was 13.8% of the total off-take in Sindh.
A quality of seed is a basic requirement for increasing the production and productivity of the crop. It is a low cost input but has the potential to increase crop yield on an average by 20% as compared to non-certified seeds.
It is reported that sale of certified seeds has been declining since many years. The figures indicate in table No.5 that the sale of wheat, paddy and cotton certified seeds drastically decreased by 85.7%, 100% and 91.4% respectively over the period of lat five years. The sale of wheat certified seed was recorded at 3.5 thousand kg. mds. at the cost of Rs.1619 thousand during the year 1997-98 which was 76.2% lesser than the preceding year. It is estimated that 1.4 thousand hectares of wheat crop were cultivated under certified seed which was only 1.0% of the total cropped area under wheat in Sanghar district.
The distribution of improved paddy seed was estimated at 816 kg. mds. with a total outlays of Rs.294 thousand during the year 1997-98. Its share to the total cropped area under paddy in Sanghar was remained at 17.0%. Similarly the sale of cotton certified seed is reported at 0.5 thousand kgs. maunds with estimated cost of Rs.675 thousand in the year 1997-98 which declined by 86.6% as compare to the previous year. Likewise its share in the total cropped area was 0.6%.
The most farmers use their own (farm) or from market and vast majority have little access for quality control as the public agencies and market agencies do not provide more than 3 to 17 percent of good and certified seed for these crops. The less use of improved seed is one of the most serious factor for obtaining low yields.
3.5 Pesticides.
Pesticides plays major role in protecting cops from the attack of pest and disease. It is estimated that crops losses, during the growth season and after harvesting, caused by insect & pests are considerable high to the extent of 25%. Many of these losses are avoidable, if proper preventive and curative measures are taken. Plant protection measures, dependent mainly on pesticides, are grossly inadequate even for the four leading crops. The most preferred use of plant protection measures on crops are now the ground sprays both as preventive and curative measures.
Increase in cropping intensities and cultivation pattern help the development of permanent flora for retaining the sufficient quantity of seed in soil. The application of tillage operation including hand labour for control of weeds are not traditionally practised due to shortage of labour and its high costs. Weedicides, are not mostly used, however, only insignificant progressive farmers are applying weedicides in wheat crop.
It is reported in table No.6 that the area of 4012 hectares under wheat crops was treated with 8.4 metric tonnes weedicide for the control of weeds which covered only 2.8% of the total area under wheat in Sanghar district in 1997-98.(Table No.6)
The latest information available on use of pesticides indicates that the plant protection measures were carried out over an area of 1167 hectares under rice crop which utilized the pesticide of 4.1 metric tonnes. The coverage was only 30.4% of the total area cultivated under rice in district Sanghar.
Cotton crop is attacked by large number of insect & pests from sowing to picking stages. In Sanghar district, 275.8 thousand hectares under cotton were treated for the control of insect pests. The coverage was 224% of the total area under cotton which consumed 839.6 metric tonnes of pesticides. The figure of coverage indicated that the same area of cotton sprayed/treated more than twice.
Similarly, Sugar Cane crop with an area of 7902 hectares was protected from the attack of insect pests. The 8.8 metric tonnes pesticides were used with 73.0% coverage of the total area under sugar cane in Sanghar district.
3.6 Live Stock:
Live Stock is one of the major sub-sector of Agriculture and back bone of our economy. It contributes roughly one third in the total share of Agriculture GDP. Its main by-products including hides and skins have substantial potential as semi-finished products. A substantial growth on Live Stock products viz-a-viz milk, meat, beef, mutton, poultry and eggs have been noticed since many years.
It has been estimated that over three - fourths of the farm power comes from animals, and they are used for most of the farm operations. Bullocks provide the draft power on farm and in transport around the villages.
Most farmers traditionally keep a few heads of live stock, ranging from bullocks for draft to buffaloes or cattle for milk and poultry for eggs & meat. There is a need for increasing the heads of live stock to supplement income by selling products. Production for market even at the expense of consumption at home has become quite common in many areas of Sindh. There are pockets of organised live stock farming, such as cattle farms (or colonies) and poultry farms located mainly in the urban areas. Most other units are of small size and not well kept.
As per live stock census 1996, the population of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in Sanghar district were recorded at 353305, 253252, 197312 and 702928 respectively. The population of live stock grew by 0.6% cattle and 1.5% buffaloes, whereas it declined by 2.8% sheep and 0.6% goats over the last live stock census enumerated in 1986.(Table No.7)
Meat, hair, hides, skins and wool are the other major products of live stock. Beef is the most important source of meat. But most of this beef is produced from discarded old bullocks, milch cattle and buffaloes, and buffalo calves. Mutton comes next in the market place, and it is provided by a variety of goats and sheep.
During the year 1997-98 it was reported that 207916 animals were slaughtered in the Sanghar district. Out of the total slaughtered animals, 10243 cattle, 12623 buffaloes, 158333 sheep and 26717 goats were slaughtered. It was estimated that 2.9% cattle, 5.0% buffaloes, 8.0% sheep and 3.8% goats were slaughtered out of the total live stock population in 1997-98. It was observed that over the period of last five years the slaughtering of goats was decreased by 14.6% whereas in case of cattle, buffaloes and sheep were increased by 18.4%, 11.6% and 21.9% respectively.( Table No.8). In order to meet the requirements of meat and milk, live stock farming seems to be necessary in joint venture of public/private sector or helping private sector in importing the livestock for establishing live stock farms through loans on easy terms & conditions. The Sanghar district posses vast potential for establishing livestock farming in the district.
3.7 Veterinary Institution.
The under nourishment, disease and internal parasites, act as a serious constraint on animal production. The animal have to be guarded against ill health, and preventive/curative measures are required to be taken regularly. The veterinary hospitals, dispensaries and centres provide preventive and curative services for disease control for live stock.
Table No.9 depicts that in Sanghar district Four veterinary hospitals, 11 dispensaries and 32 veterinary centres were functioning during the year 1997-98. In all 47 veterinary institutions were available to provide health coverage and treatment facilities to the entire livestock of the district. In all 866 veterinary Institutions were established in the Province of Sindh which translated into the health care ratio of one veterinary Institution for 2628 live stock. It is worked out that Sanghar district had 5.4% of the total veterinary Institutions in Sindh. (Table No.9).
Institution Sindh Hyderabad %age Share Hospital 64 4 6.3% Dispensaries 115 11 9.6% Centres 687 32 4.7% Total 866 47 5.4%

The establishment of veterinary hospitals/centres at district, tahsil and taluka level has hardly contributed towards live stock disease control. Though expansion of live stock dispensaries and centres in the rural area has partially been successful in disease control. There is a need for diversification of veterinary health institutions from cities to rural areas.
The existing position indicates that 73906 animals were treated, and 81740 animals were vaccinated for the control of various diseases in veterinary institutions thereby representing 4.5% of curative and 5.4% of preventive coverage over the total live stock population in Sanghar district.
3.8 Inland Fisheries:
Inland fishing, the main economic activity is practised in rivers, lacks and ponds etc. in Sindh province. Fish not only supplements protein deficiency of food but also earns foreign exchange for the country. Fisheries contributes to both the national income and export earnings.
Inland fish production has been increasing over the years. In Sanghar district the inland fish production grew at the rate of 4.5% per annum from 710 m.tonnes in 1993 over the last five years and registered at 885 m.tonnes in year 1997. It is estimated that Sanghar district contributes 1.0% of total 91903 m.tonnes inland fish production of Sindh. It is reported that 290 fishermen were engaged full time in the fisheries sector whereas 245 fishermen contributes their services for part time during the year 1997. Total number of boats used for the catchment of fish were 175. Of these, 80 boats were sail type and 95 boats were row type (Table No.10).
Per capita consumption of inland fish in the province of Sindh is very low i.e. 3.1 kg only. Keeping in view of the high rate population growth, production from land resources will not be able to keep up with the population increase. Protein deficiency could become serious problem in near future. In order to solve this, fish production needs proper attention to exploit the abundant resources to meet the protein needs of a growing population.

3.9 Forest:
Forests are not only necessary for in-habited by livestock population dependable source of energy but instrumental in improving environmental quality and dependable source for meeting domestic energy requirements of fuel wood. Besides it helps in conservation of soils, improve environment by controlling pollution, cause rainfall and climatic changes supplement source of energy and stabilize gas and oil prices. The forestry programme in Sindh envisages management of forest on commercial basis in the Riverine forests, irrigation plantation forests, mangrove forests, development of Social Forestry, Agriculture, Coconut and Range lands.
Total forest area in Sindh is 1161 thousand hectares or 8.3% of the Sindh province area which is far below the desired ratio of 20 to 30 percent considered necessary for balanced ecology. The per capita forest area being 0.039 hectare in Sindh province or 0.032 hectares in the country was also quite low as compared to the world average of about 1.0 hectare.
In Sanghar District, the forest area is spread over 9.2 thousand hectares which is 0.8% of the total area under forest in Sindh in the year 1997-98. Sanghar district produced 91.0 thousand cubic feet timber wood and 182 thousand cft. fire wood at the value of Rs.2150 thousand which contributes about 12.1% of the total value of forest Timber & Fire wood in Sindh in 1997-98 (Table No.11).
The total forest out put was increased by Rs.1138.3 thousand from Rs.3327.1 thousand in 1996-97 to Rs.4465.4 thousand in 1997-98 representing a significant growth of 34.0% in terms of value in Sanghar district.
In order to meet the standard ratio of 20-30% land as forest there is a need to bring more area of 205.6 to 312.8 thousand hectares under forest where as in fact there is a substantial potential of growing agro-forest in Sanghar.
Progress in increasing forest area has been limited due to financial and social constraints. The only need to increase the forest wealth in the province of Sindh as well as in country is to extensively grow trees on farm lands. In order to involve farming community in tree growing activity, social forestry programmes have been launched through out in the country with attractive incentives in the form of subsidize supply of planting stock, partial payment of planting cost, free protection of planted areas for a limited period of time and fair return to the farmers. The tree plantation on katcha/pucca road/canal path and in Government offices, health/education institution shall continue to be encouraged.
3.10 Food Storage:
Maintenance of food grain reserves is necessary to meet the off season requirements and to stabilize the prices. To achieve this end storage facilities are required by the producers as well as by marketers, processors and the government. The farmer needs storage in order to sell when prices are favourable and reduce seasonal fluctuations in prices. The government requires stocks to carry out the country through bad years. Government role as the distributary agency of essential items necessitates enlargement of storage facilities.
The main thrust of government storage policy is to make available proper storage facilities, bring improvement in grain handling system & reduce grain losses to ensure the supply of adequate and good quality of food grains to the consumers. Food storage in public sector were provided for wheat, rice & cotton.
As a result of significant increase in domestic production and future needs of storage for important agricultural commodities and inputs, the demand for increase in storage capacity has become acute.
As per information provided in table No.12 the storage capacity of 746120 metric tonnes was available with government of Sindh. Of these, 95% godown's were owned by food department. Additionally, 0.4% H.type storage accommodation was constructed through annual development programme while 4.6% storage facility was provided at an open plinth. Whereas Sanghar district had H.type storage accommodation with capacity of 51780 metric tonnes. CHAPTER 3-A
Electricity is essential for urban/rural development in all sectors of economy and in all walks of life. Provision of electricity to rural people is a source of happiness and prosperity to rural masses. Generally electricity in rural areas is provided in rural settlements with population of 200 and above. WAPDA is the sole authority to electrify villages under different programmes.
As per population census of 1998, in district Sanghar, there were 1439 rural settlements with population 200 and above. WAPDA has so far electrified 915 villages. There are still 524 villages which need to be electrified.
4.1 The manufacturing establishments in district Sanghar are reported as 20 units during Census of Manufacturing Industries (CMI), 1997-98. By comparing with the previous census that took place in 1990-91, under which 13 units were reported, it shows that 7 more units have been increased. The leading order of the manufacturing groups during 1997-98 is given below:
S.No. Group No.of Units functioning---- ----- -----------
i. Cotton Ginning 9ii. Oil Mills 3iii. Flour Mills 1 iv. Food. 1v. Match Factory 2vi. Sugar Mill 1vii. Misc. 3 ----------- 20 ------------
4.2 The detailed position/location of above mentioned Cotton Ginning, flour mills, Food Mills, Match Factories, one Sugar Mill, Oil mills and others manufacturing (Location wise) is given as follows:
4.3 In this taluka, there are 6 establishments reported during the census of manufacturing industries (CMI) 1997-98 against the total number of 20 units for the whole district.
4.4 In this taluka, there are 11 industrial units which include 3 Cotton Ginning, 3 Oil Mills, 1 Sugar Mill, 1 Flour Mill, 1 Food Mill, 2 Match factories and one other unit reported during the census of 1998.
4.5 In the rest of District Sanghar, there are only 4 establishments are reported i.e 3 located in Shahdadpur and one in Sinjhoro. In other two talukas of this district i.e. Khipro and Jam Nawaz Ali the census of 1998 has not reported any industries.
4.6 There is one Sugar Mill in Sanghar district located in Tando Adam during the year 1996-97. Sanghar is growing a small area of 10819 hectares with Sugarcane production of 673718 tons. The field production of Sugar Cane at 62.2 tonnes yield per hectare appears to be on higher side compared to other areas in Sindh. The Sugar cane requirements of the mill are, therefore, being properly fulfilled within the district itself Sugarcane is also supplied to other districts.4.10
4.7 One Industrial Estate is established under Sindh Small Industries Corporation in Sanghar district which is located in District Headquarters Sanghar. One Small unit is functioning under small Industrial Estates. There are 3 small Industrial Units functioning as self-employment schemes. Detail are given in table-6.2).

4.8 The detail of Industrial groups are as under:
a) Under self Employment Schemes:
i. Cotton 1
ii. Ice Factories 2
------- 3
b) Under Small Industrial Estates:
i. Rice Mills 1 ii. Misc. 6 --------- 7 ---------


4.9 Sindh province is rich in minerals. 19 minerals are being mined within the province. Identifying the order of mineral production during 1997-98 number one is lime-stone by 27,19,808 M.tonnes, number two is coal producing 1164827 tonnes, number three is shale/clay shown as 585805 M.tonnes; fourth position is that of Dolomite with production of 85552 M.tonnes.
4.10 In the district Sanghar only one mine namely lake salt is mined with production of 12012 tonnes during 1997-98. CHAPTER-5
5.1 Road net work is considered as a vehicle for economic development and social change. It is used as an Indicator for computing the stage of economic development. Efficient road network not only develops a quick and efficient transportation system but also opens up new area hitherto remained closed. It brings about social integration among rural and urban sectors and greatly assists in accessibility to basic needs i.e. schools, hospitals, etc. It brings rural areas in constant touch with urban segment of society and creates better understanding necessary for social change and political awakening.
Existing Position:
5.2 Sanghar has a fairly good net work of roads. The district head quarter of Sanghar is connected with its taluka headquarters through metalled roads. Roads from rural areas to taluka headquarters are mostly metalled. There are 1974.29 kilometres metalled and 307.91 kilometres unmetalled roads in the district.
RAILWAY:5.3 District Sanghar is served by two railway lines which pass through its western half. The main line between Peshawar and Karachi passes through some of its big towns, namely Tando Adam, Shahdadpur, Lundo and Sarhari. The other loopline which starts from Mirpurkhas passes through Nauabad, Jhole, Sunjhoro, Khadro, Shah pur Chakar, Pritamabad, Jam Sahib and connects the district with Nawabshah.
5.4 Important road links in Sanghar district are as under:
1. Road from Sanghar to Tando Adam via Jhole.2. Road from Sanghar to Shahdadpur via Sinjhoro. 3. Road from Sanghar to Shahdadpur via Jhol.4. Road from Shahdadpur to Barhoon.5. Road from Shahdadpur to Gupchai.6. Road from Sanghar to Sarhari via Khacho and Shahpur Chakar.7. Road from Sanghar to Nawabshah via Rawtiani, Khadro, Shahpur Chakar and Gupchai.8. Road from Shahdadpur to Nawabshah via Gupchani.9. Road from Shahdadpur to Hyderabad via Hala.10. Road from Tando Adam to Hyderabad via Matiari.11. Road from Tando Adam to Mirpurkhas via Tando Allahyar. 5.5 The over all position (by type of roads) is presented as under:- ABSTRACT OF ROAD MILEAGE (K.M.) OF DISTRICT SANGHAR AS ON 30-06-1998
S.NO. ITEMS METALLED KATCHA TOTAL ROAD IN ROAD IN LENGTH KM. KM. IN KM.----- ----------------- -------- ------- ------i. Provincial Roads 935.36 -- 935.36ii. Rural Roads 31.70 87.55 119.25iii. Farm to Market Road 1007.23 220.36 1227.59
---------------------------- Grand Total:- 1974.29 307.91 2282.20 ----------------------------
Details of above roads (Taluka-wise) are given in Table No.1.
5.6 Among the means of transportation, Buses, Motor Cars, Jeeps, Vans, Loading Trucks, Bullock Carts, Camel carts, Donkey Carts and Suzuki Pickups are used. Most of the commercial goods are transported by Heavy trucks, Mini Trucks (Mazda), Suzuki pickups and railways.
5.7 For identifying the development gaps there are certain standards about adequacy of roads which are as under:
i) 0.50 kilometre of Pucca road per 1 square kilometre of geographic area. ii) Road density based on cultivable area. (2. kilometres per 1 square kilometre) iii) Road density based on cropped area.(1. kilometre per 1.square kilometre) iv) Road network connecting settlements of 1000+ and 500+ population. v) Road length per 10,000 population. vi) Movement of persons goods and services.
5.8 The available international standard related to agriculture postulates that there should be atleast 2 km. of road for every of cultivable area. Modification of this standard appears necessary from two angles: Firstly, this standard includes katcha roads as well whereas we would like to evolve a standard in terms of metalled road only. Secondly, the standard is related to cultivable area which is invariably greater than cropped area. The cropped area standard of 1 km. of metalled road per of cropped area is also misleading. As in irrigated area, it must be much higher than in deserted/hilltorian areas. However, the settlements located in unirrigated zone also require special attention and connecting of 1000+ & 500+ villages appears appealing except some settlements located in unproductive zones (desert, hill tracts) the settlements lying therein with population 1000+ should at least be connected.
5.9 Under the population standard, urban settlements with large population would get more roads. However, the data of movement of persons, goods and services is not easily available.
5.10 Under these circumstances, the standard based on geographical area is most suited i.e. (0.5 km. of pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographical area).
5.11 Super imposing the chosen/agreed standard of 0.5 km. of metalled Road for one sq. km. of geographical area, we need a total of 5363.84 kms. of metalled road. With the existing road length pitched at 1974.29 kms. additional road length of 3389.55 km. as per (development gap) is required to be constructed to meet the required standard in District Sanghar. Details are given at Table No.2.
5.12 A simple taluka wise analysis of the road situation in the district is given in Table No.2. The table shows pucca road densities in terms of K.M. per of geographical area wherein it is evident that Khipro is by far the most back ward taluka in so far as pucca road facility is concerned. The pucca road density for this taluka works out as 0.09 K.M per of geographical area as compared to the respective figures of 0.18 K.M for the district.
5.13 According to High ways Department's road statistics Sindh Province had a total of 20781.45 Km of pucca road upto June 1998 out of this, 1974.29 kms. (9.5%) were in Sanghar District which compares well with its population share of 4.7%. Comparative position of road length and densities in the geographical areas of various districts may be seen in Table No.3. CHAPTER-6
The Majority of Schools in the District belonging to Government are functioning under the supervision of District Education Officer (Male/Female). Education is basic right of the people, therefore Primary Education for Children male/Female is mandatory and it is provided free of cost in the province of Sindh. The formal Educational structure in Sindh is divided into four main streams, the first level known as primary refers to Grade I-V for age of school going population 5-9 years, 2nd stage includes middle secondary, elementary and higher secondary. The third stream is called college education which consists of higher education. After completion of the college education, a candidate is awarded Bachelor degree in Arts/Commerce or Science. Duration of post secondary education varies in Technical and Professional fields, the Poly Technic Institutes offer four years B. Tech course. A Bachelor degree in medicines requires five years education. Similarly Bachelor degree courses in Engineering, Agriculture and Veterinary medicines are awarded of four years duration after the intermediate examination.
An additional two years after the bachelor degree are required to acquire a master degree in Arts/Commerce or Science leading to award of Ph.D degree which may require two or three more years after the completion of master degree course.
In the existing Primary Schools network during 1997-98 in Sanghar, there were total 3047 schools including mosque schools, out of which 2846 schools were located in rural areas and 201 schools in urban areas, urban schools which total 201 were further bifurcated into 152 male and 49 female schools, total primary enrolment of 129887 souls was noted (91399 male and 38488 female) in the district. There, 7451 teaching staff was engaged in providing primary education including 1213 female teachers.
Teacher student ratio worked out on the basis of information received from the Education Department stands at 1:20, 1:18 and 1:24 for male, female and both sexes respectively.
The participation rate at primary level calculated on the basis of population projection stands at 74% for male and 35% for female, over all participation is worked out to 55%.
In Sanghar District, there were 238 closed/on paper Primary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 1355 boys and 118 girls schools were lacking toilets. 1471 schools were without drinking water facility. 1458 Primary schools including 112 girls schools are without boundary wall. 691 schools are functioning either in rental building or shelterless. 627 schools require repair, where as 108 schools were working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
The Social Action programme (SAP) has taken care of the idea by enhancing female enrolments and developed a following criteria which will boost up the female primary education.
(a) The first school in a area shall be established as mixed school. The Second School in the same ares shall be girls school. (b) No existing primary school within the range of 1.5 km. (c) The age group population of 5-9 years must be 100.
For universalization of primary education there is need of opening new schools which will provide additional enrolment resulting in increase of literacy rate. There is need of reactivation of closed schools. And also there is need of resorting the existing enrolment for which reconstruction/improvement in existing schools is required.
To achieve the goal following are the recommendations.
1. Stoppage of transfer/deputation of teacher from village schools to, urban area/or place of their choice.
2. The closed schools located at remote places/or in a settlements below criteria and having no school building may officially be declared as closed and a new school may be established at a deserving rural settlement that falls on the population criteria etc.
3. In future, while appointing primary school teachers (male/female), preference may be given to local area teachers. Due to this at least "non local teachers" will not be the reason for closure of the schools.
1. Buildings may only be provided to already established school functioning in a temporary accommodation, running under trees in Jhugis or rented building and having atleast enrolment of 60 children.
2. Furniture/Electricity/Water/Toilet/Latrine facility may be provided to such an established schools that have suitable building without having such facilities in the first instance.
3. Re-adjustment of existing school buildings may be done through administrative steps. A simple executive order may be issued for introduction of double shift programme in the urban/rural locations which will change the scenario and will also save the anticipated development expenditure to be incurred on provision of separate building facility for boys & girls.
4. The boys school buildings located in rural settlements with 1000 and above population can be provided with additional class rooms if required in order to make the school, five roomed.
1. Instead of opening new primary schools for boys (alongwith construction of a new building) in rural settlements of 500-999, following strategy is proposed to be adopted:
a) In case of a building available for girls school, 2 shifts approach may be adopted. This will result in full utilization of the available school buildings.
b) Only mosque schools may be opened, where there is a gap in rural settlements below 500 population at the initial stage. After three years the mosque schools that attain an enrolment of 50 or more, (after an evaluation) may be converted into a primary school. The building may be provided to such school where there is no school building already available in the village.
3. No new building may be provided where the schools can run in shifts in the existing buildings of a primary school for boys or girls. This type of administrative action will reduce the development cost to be incurred on construction of new buildings.
In urban area co-education at primary level may be introduced and female teacher may be appointed/posted in primary schools.
Secondary education consists of middle/high schools. In its existing position there were 152 middle schools (109 male and 43 female) in district Sanghar with enrolment of 7077 and 658 teachers as per information available for 97-98.
As regards high schools, there were 73 high schools (60 for male and 13 for female) in the district during 1997-98. There were working 1790 teachers to coupe with the enrolment of 32462.
In Sanghar District, there were 11 closed/on paper Secondary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 37 boys and 13 girls schools were lacking toilets. 51 schools were without drinking water facility. 45 Secondary schools including 11 girls schools are without boundary wall. 32 schools are functioning either in rental building or shelterless. 63 schools require repair, where as 13 schools were working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
In order to provide secondary education, urban locations must be covered with secondary school of male as well as female in case of non availability of school, initially middle school may be provided which could be up-graded to high school later on as per requirement. There are 4 Higher Secondary Schools in Sanghar district having 6924 enrolment (2375 male 4549 female) with 149 teaching staff.
There are 6 colleges, out of which 4 colleges are reserved for boys and 2 colleges for girls having 6757 students, same colleges are enriched with teaching staff of 119.
Presently in Sanghar there is 1 Polytechnic institute having enrolment 898 students, beside this one Commercial training institute having intake capacity of 60 students.
There are 5 Commercial training centre having enrolment of 152 students and 3 Govt. Vocational Institute for Women having intake capacity of 200 students with enrolment of 37 students. CHAPTER-7
7.1 District Sanghar has 1 civil hospital, 4 Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals, 10 Rural Health Centres, 50 Basic Health Units and 9 Dispensaries with total bed capacity of 510. There are 312 doctors and 520 para medical staff in public sector who extend health services to 508031 outdoor and 27331 indoor patients in the district.
7.2 On the basis of existing health facilities, taluka wise details of population per health/bed facility are given in Table No.8.
7.3 The Civil Hospital Located in Sanghar city and provides health facilities to Sanghar and its adjoining areas including whole of the district besides other urban localities are either covered with T.H.Q., R.H.C or B.H.U. The Town wise coverage of Health facility is given in Table No. 1.A.
7.4 By the end of December, 1998, the public sector health institutions in the District excluding Sanghar and other urban centres consisted of 10 R.H.Cs, 50 B.H.Us and 9 dispensaries. In addition to above, seven BHUs are under construction in the District. The Taluka-wise details are given in table No.1.B. As per policy of the government, a BHU has been provided in the every Union Council.
7.5 It may be pointed out that forty four Union Councils of the district have already been covered with Health Facility of RHC or BHU. However, there are still number of big rural settlements/villages which go without health facilities. The taluka wise Union councils, covered with Health facility, is given in Table No. 7.
7.6 As per prescribed criteria, a Dispensary can be established in a rural settlement with population of 1000 having no health facility within the radius of 2-3 Keeping in view the rural settlement pattern of the population census 1998, the following 162 rural settlements are categorized as big settlements with a population of 1000 & above in Sanghar:
Settlement No.of Covered with DevelopmentSize Settlements Health Facilities Gap As per Population (1998) ----------- ------------- ------------------ --------------
1000 & above 162 76 86

7.7 Out of 162 settlements, 76 are covered with health facility. The rest of 86 settlements are yet to be covered in the Sanghar district.
7.8 In order to make programme a success, the local community participation is necessary. They can share in the development activity by providing piece of land for construction of health facility and labour, etc.7.9 The Government has accorded the highest priority to preventive programmes such as EPI, AIDS Control Programme, Malaria Control Programme and Health Education. The diseases covered under the EPI programme are the major killers of children. Efforts are being made to cover most of infants under this programme. It is under execution since 1979. The major objectives of the project are as under:-
(i) Vaccination of 90% new born infants and 100% remaining 12-23 months children against Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Measles and Childhood Tuberculosis.
(ii) Vaccination of 70% pregnant ladies and 100% of child bearing age ladies with atleast two doses of Tetanus Toxoid in order to eliminate neo-natal tetanus.

8.1 Potable Water Supply is a pre-requisite for the health of people. Lack of proper drinking Water Supply and Sanitation in rural as well as urban areas has caused wide spread water borne diseases of which diarrhoea among small children happens to be a major killer. These diseases transmitted through unclear water and poor sanitation deplete human energy resulting in sickness reducing thereby the productivity of the people.
8.2 Water Supply is vitally important sector for the urban and rural population of the district. The rural population distribution in district is quite unique in the sense that it has fewer larger villages and a very large number of small settlements, most of which can hardly be called "Villages"; they are essentially on the farm clusters of population. According to the present arrangements Water Supply and Drainage facilities are being provided to the people by the Departments i.e. Public Health Engineering Department and Rural Development Department. The break up of size of village/settlement with %age share is as under:-
SIZE OF VILLAGE NUMBER PERCENTAGE i) Less than 1000. 3095 95.02% ii) 1000 and above 162 4.98% Total: 3257 100%
8.3 As regards the Urban Water Supply Schemes in District Sanghar, all urban localities are covered with Water Supply of piped water system. 21 schemes have been completed as reported upto June 1997 and one scheme at estimated cost of Rs.19.031 million is under implementation during the year 1997-98. Details of completed and on-going Water Supply Schemes (Taluka-wise) are given in Table No.1.
8.4 So far provision of Urban Drainage Schemes in District Sanghar is concerned all urban localities are covered with Drainage/sewerage or open pacca drain system. 13 schemes have been completed as reported upto June, 1997 and 3 schemes at estimated cost of Rs.120.265 million are under implementation during the year 1997-98. Details of number of completed and on-going Drainage Schemes (Taluka-wise) are given in Table No.1.
8.5 The water supply facility in the rural areas of Sindh through a piped water system is to be provided according to the criteria which assigns priority to "A rural settlement with population of 1000 and above preferably having brackish ground water". In Sanghar district, 162 rural settlement having population upto 1000 are categorised into 3 type of settlements in descending order according to their size of population taking into account the quality of ground water.
8.6 Presently, out of 33 rural settlements having population 2000 and above, 22 settlements have been covered by the water supply facility. In second category which includes 34 settlements with population ranging between 1999 to 1500, 14 rural settlements have been facilitated by water supply schemes while in the third category out of 95 rural settlements 30 have been covered by such facility. Thus, out of total 162 rural settlements, 66 settlements are covered with the required facility of water supply as reported upto June 1997. Taluka-wise details of uncovered settlements and their quality of water is given in table No.3.
8.7 For providing the water supply to uncovered rural settlements, 5 schemes are under implementation at the estimated cost of Rs.14.572 million during the current year i.e. 1997-98 leaving gap of 91 uncovered villages. According to our criteria 55 additional settlements with brackish water will require water supply schemes on priority basis. Details of completed, on-going schemes and No. of brackish water settlements (taluka wise) are given at table No.2 and 3. 8.9 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed water supply schemes (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.5.
8.10 Drainage system in the rural areas of Sindh under the prescribed criteria is provided for "A rural settlement with population 1000 & above preferably having water system". Presently, out of total 162 rural settlements 24 settlements have been covered by the drainage facility. Under the first category, out of, 33 rural settlements having population of 2000 and above, 16 settlements are facilitated by the drainage facility. In second category only 5 settlements from 34 have been covered with drainage and under third category out of 95 rural settlements 3 settlements have the facility of drainage system. Taluka wise details of completed drainage schemes are given in table No.4. 8.11 For providing the Rural Drainage facility to the uncovered rural settlements another 6 schemes are under implementation at the estimated cost of Rs.31.193 million during the current year (i.e.1997-98), leaving a development gap of 132 rural settlements. According to criteria, 42 settlements with water supply schemes will require drainage facility on priority basis. The details of taluka-wise completed, on-going schemes and uncovered settlements are given in table 2 & 4. 8.12 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed drainage scheme (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.6.

8.13 More than 86% population of rural Sindh resides in villages upto 1000 population. Rural Development Department, Govt. of Sindh has been charged with the responsibility of providing Water Supply and Sanitation facilities in these settlements. Presently, it executes two Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Projects funded by the World Bank and UNICEF respectively. Through these projects, potable water is provided by installing hand pumps while Sanitation facilities are provided by constructing household latrines and imparting hygiene Education in villages having population of upto one thousand souls.
8.14 In District Sanghar, there are a number of 3095 villages with population upto 1000. Rural Development Department has so far provided 650 water supply Schemes through hand pumps in 420 villages and covered 0.057 million population. This leaves the development gap of a large number of small settlements i.e. 2675 villages where this facility is yet to be provided. Taluka wise details are given at table No.7.
8.15 The Rural Development Department has also helped in forming effective Village Organisations to function collectively and carry forward the participatory development approach. The concept is that by using both local and external resources and working together, the development of the villages can take place. In sanitation, households contribute more than the government share. The Rural Development Department component of this project has adopted bold initiatives in Community Participation and Co-ordination with other institutions (government and non-government) to bring a range of services to project villages.
8.16 The project has following components:-
1. Community Development. 2. Health Development. 3. Water Supply. 4. Sanitation. 5. District Co-ordination Committees. 6. Training. 7. Institutional Strengthening. 8. Documentation.
8.17 Under the two projects aided by World Bank and UNICEF, village Organisations are formed. The hand pumps and sanitation schemes are operated and maintained by the communities.
8.18 In most of the urban areas the problem is more of inadequate and inefficient distribution rather than that of water supply availability. Attention should there fore be focused on a better distribution system alongwith an augmentation of suppers.
8.19 In case of sewerage and drainage, the situation is much worse and is aggravated by the expansion of water supply facilities. Provision of sewerage & drainage disposal facilities has therefore to match the programme of water supply.
8.20 Priority should be given to those areas where sweet ground water is not available at a reasonable depth and where water has to be fetched from distance.( Details are given in Table No.3) Similarly, Special consideration has to be given to areas where the rural population presently relies on surface water which is unfit for human consumption.
8.21 In areas where people have installed their own hand pump, priority should be given to sanitational disposal schemes. Piped water supply system is to be restricted to bigger village with a population ranging from 3000 to 5000. Hand pumps are being provided to smaller villages and initial delivery systems should be based on community stand-post and storage tanks.
8.22 Piped water-supply should be provided only at places where underground water is brackish, but here also the quality of material used and the workmanship must be improved. Frequent water leakages due to use of sub-standard pipes and defective implementation of schemes have created further problems through collection of water in the residential areas and damages of the buildings.
8.23 Water-supply through the implementation of water-supply schemes needs to be monitored regularly to ensure that the water is fit for human consumption. This is desirable specially because the water-supply schemes in Sindh do not provide for the filtration or chlorination process. Long-term effect of such water on health of the people needs to be studied.
8.24 Top priority be assigned to the sanitary disposal of sewage and waste-water which has collected in the form of stinking ponds in the vicinity of the towns and the larger rural settlements. The sewage so collected can neither be disposed off through land treatment (since it may cause soil sickness) nor it could be pumped into the flowing canals due to the fear of water pollution. The sewage ponds give rise to mosquito breeding and are likely to pollute the subsoil water which is the source of drinking water in this area. As such the top priority/attention should be given to solve this problem. The sewage could be treated in the oxidation ponds or in the digesting chambers. It would then be easy to dispose off the treated water into the flowing canals.
8.25 The Public Health Engineering Department (PHED)is responsible for planning, designing and construction of Water Supply Schemes in the province essentially in the larger villages having population of 1000 and above as per prescribed criteria. Sanitation/Drainage schemes are also provided by PHED in villages above 1000 persons where water supply schemes have been already provided. Details of such villages already covered/uncovered through drainage may be seen in table No.4.
8.26 Normally after completion of the schemes Public Health Engineering Department used to hand over the completed schemes to the local councils for operation and maintenance who under took maintenance task with great reluctance due to their unsound financial position, lack of technical know-how and doubts about the quality of construction work of completed schemes. As a result most of the completed schemes are poorly maintained by local councils and are either being partly run or closed down without any public utility.
8.27 Present Government has launched the Social Action Programme (SAP) in the Country which aims to improve the quality of life particularly in rural areas by providing basic amenities, such as, primary education, health care, safe drinking water and sanitation.8.28 The Provincial Government has adopted a "unified policy" which imbibes the community to take operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Schemes on sustainable basis and as such has decided the following measures:-
(a) That all the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme will be dealt on Community basis.
(b) The Community will be motivated to form village development organisations (VDOS) which will closely associated with the implementation of the schemes at all stages and the completed schemes will be taken over by them for O/M and Management.
(c) In view of unsatisfactory financial conditions of most of the rural communities, it has been decided by the Present Government to provide cost of electricity and non routine maintenance, whereas "Community" will bear the cost of engaging operators/personnel and routine maintenance through recovery of user charges from the consumers.


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