Saturday, March 12, 2005

Naushero Feroze Economic Profile




Chapter Title Page No.
District Map I District at Glance 1 - 3
Chapter-1 Geographical Characteristics 4 - 6 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Location 1.3 Topography-(Tract/Zone) 1.4 Climate 1.5 Administrative set up
Chapter-2 Demographic Characteristics 7 - 10
2.1 Population 1998 2.2 Settlement pattern (size) urban/rural. - Statistical Tables 9 - 10
Chapter-3 Agriculture 11 - 36
3.1 Land Utilization 12 3.2 Crop Position 12 3.2.1 Wheat 13 3.2.2 Cotton 13 3.2.3 Rice 14 3.4.4 Sugarcane 14 3.2.5 Minor Crops 15 3.3 Fertilizer 15 3.4 Improved Seed 16 3.5 Pesticides 17 3.6 Livestock 18 3.7 Veterinary Institution 20 3.8 Inland Fisheries 21 3.9 Forest 22 3.10 Food Storage 23 -- Statistical Tables 25 - 36

Chapter-3-A Village Electrification 37
Chapter-4 Manufacturing 38 - 41
4.1 Existing Manufacturing 4.2 Industrial Small Scale Units 4.3 District potentials. - Statistical Tables 40 - 41
Chapter-5 Road Net work (Normal/F.T.M) 42 - 47
5.1 Existing Situation 5.2 Road Standards 5.3 Analysis 5.4 Development Gaps - Statistical Tables 46 - 47
Chapter-6 Education 48 - 56
6.1 Primary Education 6.2 Secondary Education 6.3 High Secondary Education 6.3 College Education 6.4 Technical/Commercial/Vocational Education 6.5 Professional Education 6.6 Medical Education 6.7 Establishment of General University 6.8 Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education - Statistical Tables 54 - 56
Chapter-7 Health 57 - 73
7.1 Existing Position of Health alongwith development gap. - Statistical Tables 60 - 73
Chapter-8 Water Supply & Drainage/ 74 - 88 Sewerage
8.1 Urban Water Supply 8.2 Urban Drainage 8.3 Rural Water Supply 8.4 Rural Drainage 8.5 Facilities provided through Rural Development Department. 8.6 Policy Issues/Options. - Statistical Tables. 82 - 88 DISTRICT AT GLANCEGENERAL INFORMATIONDISTRICT NAUSHEHRO FEROZE
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------
Sub-Division Nos. 3 Talukas " 4 Union Councils " 37 Market Committee " - Deh " - Villages/Settlements " 1583 Metropolitan/Municipal Corp: " - Municipal Committees " 1 Town Committees " 9 2. AREA Sq. kms. 3,021
Population (Total) Nos. 10,64,651 Male " 5,54,682 Female " 5,09,969
Rural " 8,76,260 Male " 4,57,208 Female " 4,19,052
Urban " 1,88,391 Male " 97,474 Female " 90,917
Population Density Per sq. km. 352
Area Hectare
Cotton " 56,312 Rice " 6,842 Wheat " 1,27,392 Sugarcane " 23,492 Jawar " 12,545 Barley " - Rape Seed & Mustered " 9,196 Gram " -
Cotton Bales 2,11,618 Rice M.Tons 14,267 Wheat " 3,75,239 Sugarcane " 14,02,514 Jawar " 7,689 Barley " - Rape Seed & Mustered " 7,817 Gram " -
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------ 5. INDUSTRIAL SETUP
Sugar Factories Nos. 1 Cotton Ginning Factories " 10 Rice Mills " 1 Oil Mills " 2 Ice Factories " - Others " 1
Villages Electrified(200 & above) Nos. 707
Development Gap (200 & above) " 876
7. COMMUNICATION: Kms. 1,190
Mettled Road " 968
Un-Mettled Road (Katcha) " 222
Primary Schools Nos. 1,972
a) Male " 1,681 b) Female " 291
Middle Schools " 127
a) Male " 85 b) Female " 42
High Schools " 64
a) Male " 46 b) Female " 18
Civil Hospital/Other Major Nos. 1 Hospitals
Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals " 2
Rural Health Centres " 11
Basic Health Units " 32
Dispensaries (Govt.) " 10
(2)S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------
Rural Water Supply Schemes Nos. 19 (Completed)
Rural W/S Coverage 1000+ " 19 Population Settlements
Development Gap* " 245
Rural Drainage Scheme (Completed) " 50
Rural Drainage (Coverage) 1000+ " 50
Development Gap (1000) Settlement " 214



1.1 The new District of Naushero Feroze was carved out of district Nawab Shah in November, 1989 with its headquarters at Naushero Feroze.
1.2 The district derives its name from its headquarters town Naushero Feroze. It is located in the middle of the Sindh Province. The district lies from 25 - 59' to 27 - 15' north latitudes and 67 - 52' to 68 - 54' east longitudes. The district is bounded on the north east by Khairpur district, in the south by Nawab Shah district and on the west by Dadu and Larkana districts. The total area of district is 3,021 sq. kms.
1.3 The entire district is a fertile plain formed by the Indus river with sandy and hard clay loams. The average elevation of the area is about 50 meters above sea level. The Indus river flows from north to south along the western border of the district.
1.4 Like other Districts of Upper Sindh, Naushero Feroze has extremes of cold and hot climates. However, there is slight variation between the climate of north and the south-western part of the district. The south western portion enjoys the advantage of the sea breeze. The summer season commences from April and continues till October. May, June and July are the hottest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures recorded during this period happen to be 44 & 26 degrees centigrade respectively. The months of August and September are stuffy and suffocating. December, January and February are the coldest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during these months are 28 degrees centigrade and 8 degrees centigrade respectively. The bright sunshine in winter makes the district one of the healthiest parts of the region. The monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation recorded at Naushero Feroze during 1993 are given as under:- TABLE NO. 1.1
_________________________________________________________________ Mean temperature (C)Month Maximum Minimum Precipitation (millimetres)_________________________________________________________________
January 23.0 8.9 3.2February 28.2 9.9 21.1March 30.6 13.3 -April 38.0 19.8 -May 44.0 24.6 76.3June 44.2 26.7 -July 40.9 27.0 -August 39.0 24.3 -September 39.3 24.2 -October 36.4 17.0 -November 31.0 13.3 -December 25.9 7.9 -Annual (Average) 35.4 18.1 103.6________________________________________________________________
Source: Meteorological Department, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.


1.5 The district of Naushero Feroze comprises of 4 talukas i.e. Naushero Feroze, Bhirya, Kandiaro and Moro. The Administrative set up is based on 3 sub divisions viz: Naushero Feroze itself, Moro and Kandiaro. The district comprises of one Municipal Committee, 9 Town Committees and 37 Union Councils. Very recently, the Town Committee Naushero Feroze has been upgraded to the status of a Municipal Committee. CHAPTER- 2
2.1 The total population of Naushehro Feroze District was recorded 10,64,651 souls according to recently conducted population census 1998 that is 3.54% of the total population of Sindh. It increased by 22.09% during 1981-98 intercensal period a span of 17 years at an average annual growth rate of 1.18%. Out of its total population 188391 persons or 17.70% are settled in urban areas and remaining 876260 persons or 82.30% are located in rural areas. The sex ratio (male per 100 females) is worked out at 109, this ratio is also constituted of 109 males for rural and 107 males for urban areas. Town-wise urban population is depicted in table No.I. According to 1998 population census, there are total 192070 households in Naushehro Feroze district comprising of 1064651 persons thus giving an average size of six persons per household. The taluka wise population of 1998 is depicted in table No.II. Total district is spread in 3021 sq.kms and population density is worked out to 352 persons per in 1998 as compared to 235 persons per in 1981.
2.2 There are 1583 rural settlements having population 200-1000 of which 264 are categorized as settlements of population with 1000+ souls. By definition settlement is defined as "Place of human habitation from one isolated house to a big town or a city with certain identified location and name" on other hand the village as per definition of Board of Revenue Sindh is defined as "Place of human habitation having atleast ten houses".
2.3 The village in population terms therefore could be defined as a place of human habitation having population of about 70-100 persons (7-10 household size) and above (but not more than 5000) with certain identified location and name. The Rural settlement pattern 200 and above according to survey conducted by Sindh Bureau of Statistics during 1995 are depicted below:
TABLE "A"-----------------------------------------------------------------Taluka Settlement having Population 200-499 500-599 1000+ Total-----------------------------------------------------------------Naushehro Feroze 227 73 54 354Moro 228 99 91 418Kandiaro 239 119 62 420Bhirya 231 103 57 391-----------------------------------------------------------------Total: 925 394 264 1583-----------------------------------------------------------------
Source:- Sindh Bureau of Statistics.
2.4 The above table reveals that number of settlements having 200-499 constitute 58% of the total settlements of 200-1000. The rural settlements having population of 200+ may be considered as a cut off point and need special attention by providing basic socio-economic facility School/Electricity. The rural settlements less than 500 and more than 200 (200-499) clearly qualify for a mosque school and provision of electricity. The rural settlements with population less than 1000 (500-999) may be considered for provision of education, electricity/pucca road facility and the rural settlements with population 1000 and above should be considered for all possible civic amenities to convert them into sub urban localities and to attract surrounding scattered hamlets to voluntary migration. CHAPTER-3
Pakistan's economy has undergone considerable diversification over the years yet the agriculture sector still constitutes its back-bone. With its present contribution to GDP at 24.87 percent, Agriculture accounts for half of the total employed labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings while it serves as the base sector for the country's major industries like textiles and sugar.
The economic development of Sindh is largely dependent on the progress and growth of Agriculture sector. Sindh province contributes significantly towards over all national agriculture with 26% of the cultivated area, 17% of the cropped area and 16% of the irrigated area, 19% of the total forest area, 43% of the total production of rice, 25% of cotton, 14% wheat, 30% sugar cane, 22% other food grains, 59% of marine fish, 60% of inland fish and 28% of the live stock production originates in Sindh. Lower productivity levels per hectare continue to be problem No. 1 of crop production. Over the last ten years period, most insignificant increases are noticeable in yield of major crops over several years in view of efforts undertaken to eradicate water-logging and Salinity, provision of new seed varieties, increased use of fertilizer, pesticides, provision of agriculture extension services and on-farm water management practice and close co-ordination among farmers and agricultural field staff. Achievements of self sufficiency in major crop production must, therefore, address to the key issue bottlenecks. The enhancement of yields in the shortest possible time needs to be taken by reviewing existing programme by involving farming community in co-operative manners reducing reliance on extension staff.
The pattern of land use in a region determines crop production. Soil & climate play an important role in the management of cropping pattern of a region. Crop area used for food and cash crops can be taken as an index of the type of land system and the economic use for these crops. Land use data for latest five years are given in table No.1. The reported area in Naushehro Feroze increased from just over 294.4 thousand hectares in 1993-94 to 302.1 thousand hectares and remained the same upto 1996-97. It declined by 2.6% during the year 1997-98 & registered at 302.1 thousand hectares. However, not all of this area is cultivable and 27.5% was reported as "uncultivable."
The share of cultivated area (in the area reported) was 72.5% in 1997-98. It, however, is still higher as compared to over all Sindh reflecting higher cropping intensities. From the data given in table No.1, the cropping intensities had been increased since last many years and an acre of land in Naushehro Feroze district is almost cropped fully in a year. However, the cropped area decreased from 226.7 thousand hectares in 1996-97 to 216.4 thousand hectares in 1997-98 and occupied same position as in 1993-94. The cropping intensity is recorded at 101.4%. A small part of the area about 4.8% is being used for grazing or forest and remaining land is lying unused due to unfavourable condition or lack of irrigation water.
It is noted that the pressure of total rural population on cultivated area has increased considerably since last many years. The ratio of cultivated area per person decreased from 0.26 in 1993-94 to 0.21 in 1997-98.
3.2 CROP POSITION. There are two main crop seasons; "Kharif" and "Rabi" in Naushehro Feroze District. The Kharif season starts from April-May and ends in October-November while the Rabi starts from November-December and ends in April-May. However due to regional variation in temperature, several factors i.e varieties, availability of water, soil texture etc determine the crop pattern, sowing and harvesting time. The Crops are further categorized into major and minor crops. Wheat, Cotton, Rice, Sugar-cane are the major crops of the district; Jowar, Rapeseed & Mustard, Mattar, Onion, Bajra and Maize fall in the category of minor crops.
3.2.1 WHEAT.
Wheat is also a staple food crop of the people of Naushehro Feroze district. Thus it occupies the majority of cultivated land under wheat. Its share in total cropped area was recorded at 58.9%. The area and production of wheat for the year 1997-98 were estimated at 127.4 thousand hectares and 375.2 thousand tonnes respectively. The yield, however, was recorded at 2945 kgs.
The wheat production significantly increased by 22.2% during the year 1994-95 and the situation generally remained satisfactorily over the last five years since it grew at the rate of 5.5% due to favourable weather condition at sowing times (Table No.2).
3.2.2 COTTON:
Cotton is not only an export earning crop but it also provides raw material to local textile industries in Naushehro Feroze as well as Sindh. Its share in production stands at 9.1% in Sindh. The latest estimates of area and production for the year 1997-98 for Naushehro Feroze district were recorded at 56.3 thousand hectares and 211.8 thousand bales representing slightly decrease in area by 0.1% and an increase in production by 1.5% over the previous year. However, the yield per hectare also increased by 1.6% from 629 kgs. per hectare in 1996-97 to 639 kgs. per hectare in 1997-98. (Table No.2)
3.2.3 RICE:
Rice is an important food as well as highly valued cash crop that earns substantial foreign exchange for the country. Despite relative price having favoured the high yielding varieties, farmers traditionally grow the IRRI, and other varieties in district Naushehro Feroze.
The area under rice decreased by 19.0% from 8.5 thousand hectares in 1996-97 to 6.8 thousand hectares in 1997-98. Besides, the production of rice also went down significantly by 17.9% from 17.4 thousand tonnes to 14.3 thousand tonnes. However, yield per hectare slightly increased by 1.4% from 2057 kgs. per hectare to 2085 kgs. per hectare.(Table No.2)
Sugar production in the Sindh province depends mostly on sugarcane crop. Keeping in view its importance, great deal of attention has been paid to increase both the area and production of sugarcane. It was reported that during the year 1997-98 the sugarcane area and production upsurged by 4.7% & 9.8% respectively. (Table No.2)
Similarly, the yield per hectare increased by 4.9% from 56.9 metric tonnes per hectare in 1996-97 to 59.7 metric tonnes per hectare in 1997-98. The increase was mainly due to the attractive incentives to the farmers provided by the sugar mill management and also due to an increase in support price and favourable climatic condition prevailing in the sugarcane growing areas of district Naushehro Feroze. (Table No.2)
The information available in table No.3 depicts that Jowar, Rapeseed & Mustard , Mattar, Onion, Bajra and Maize were the minor crops which contributed the share of 5.8%, 4.3%, 0.7%, 0.7%, 0.5% and 0.2% in the total cropped area of the district Naushehro Feroze respectively during the year 1997-98. (Table No.3)
Fertilizer is one of the major input which can enhance the crop production. The timely application and use of correct doze is an essential factor for increasing crop yields. Its contribution to increased crop production is about 50%.
Mostly, the soils of Naushehro Feroze district are fertile but they are deficit in nitrogenous and phosphatic nutrients. Nitrogen is very essential for accelerating plant vigour producing large number of flowers, number of sound seeds per capsule and their proper size. It increases protein content of the seed as well. Phosphorous contributes in photosynthetic activities of plants, formation of seed, fibre and proper development of root system.
The recommended dozes of nitrogenous, phosphatic & potassium fertilizer varies from crop to crop. Other factors like fertility of soil, topography, availability of water, use of quality seed, proper preparation of land, etc. also contribute towards crop production.
The information available in table No.4 on off-take of fertilizer for the period from 1993-94 to 1997-98 depicts that it grew at the rate of 3.9% per annum in Naushehro Feroze district. The total off-take of fertilizer (N+P+K) in Naushehro Feroze district in both the Kharif and Rabi seasons of 1997-98 was 37.9 thousand nutrients tonnes which was 17.3% lower than the corresponding period of the last year. It is estimated that off-take of fertilizer in Naushehro Feroze district was 6.3% of the total off-take in Sindh.
Quality of seed is a basic requirement for increasing the production and productivity of the crop. It is a low cost input but has the potential to increase crop yield on an average by 20% as compared to non-certified seeds.
It is reported that sale of certified seeds has been declining since many years. The figures indicate in table No.5 that the sale of wheat, paddy and cotton certified seeds drastically decreased by 97.6%, 49.9% and 88.5% respectively over the period of lat five years. The sale of wheat certified seed was recorded at 220 thousand kg. mds. at the cost of Rs.101 thousand during the year 1997-98 which was 79.1% lesser than the preceding year. It is estimated that 88.9 thousand hectares of wheat crop were cultivated under certified seed which was only 0.07% of the total cropped area under wheat in Naushehro Feroze district.
The distribution of improved paddy seed was estimated at 324 kg. mds. with a total outlays of Rs.121.5 thousand during the year 1997-98. Its share to the total cropped area under paddy in Naushehro Feroze remained at 3.8%. Similarly, the sale of cotton certified seed is reported at 256 kgs. maunds with estimated cost of Rs.337.5 thousand in the year 1997-98 which was 82.0% less than the previous year. Likewise its share in the total cropped area was 0.7%.
The most farmers use their own farm seed. Vast majority have little access for quality control as the public agencies and market agencies do not provide more than 3 to 17 percent of good and certified seed for these crops. The less use of improved seed is one of the most serious factor for obtaining low yields.
3.5 Pesticides.
Pesticides plays major role in protecting crops from the attack of pest and disease. It is estimated that crops losses during the growth season and after harvesting caused by insects & pests are considerably high to the extent of 25%. Many of these losses are avoidable, if proper preventive and curative measures are taken. Plant protection measures, dependent mainly on pesticides, are grossly inadequate even for the four leading crops. The most preferred use of plant protection measures on crops are now the ground sprays both as preventive and curative measures.
Increase in cropping intensities and cultivation pattern help in the development of permanent flora for retaining the sufficient quantity of seed in soil. The application of tillage operation including hand labour for control of weeds are not traditionally practised due to shortage of labour and its high costs. Weedicides, are not mostly used; however, only insignificant progressive farmers are applying weedicides in wheat crop.
It is reported in table No.6 that the area of 3558 hectares under wheat crops was treated with 7.5 metric tonnes weedicide for the control of weeds which covered only 2.8% of the total area under wheat in Naushehro Feroze district in 1997-98.(Table No.6).
The latest information available on use of pesticides indicates that the plant protection measures were carried out over an area of 2087 hectares under rice crop which utilized the pesticide of 2.4 metric tonnes. The coverage was only 30.9% of the total area cultivated under rice in district Naushehro Feroze.
Cotton crop is attacked by large number of insect & pests from sowing to picking stages. In Naushehro Feroze district, 124.9 thousand hectares under cotton were treated for the control of insect pests. The coverage was 214.3% of the total area under cotton which consumed 380.5 metric tonnes of pesticides. The figure of coverage indicated that the same area of cotton was sprayed/treated more than twice.
Similarly, Sugar Cane crop with an area of 17.1 thousand hectares was protected from the attack of insect pests. The 19.1 metric tonnes pesticides were used with a coverage of 73.0% of the total area under sugar cane in Naushehro Feroze district.
3.6 LiveStock:
Live Stock is one of the major sub-sector of Agriculture and back bone of our economy. It contributes roughly one third in the total share of Agriculture GDP. Its main by-products including hides and skins have substantial potential as semi-finished products. A substantial growth on Live Stock products such as milk, meat, beef, mutton, poultry and eggs have been noticed since many years.
It has been estimated that over three - fourths of the farm power comes from animals, and they are used for most of the farm operations. Bullocks provide the draft power on farm and in transport around the villages.
Most farmers traditionally keep a few heads of live stock, ranging from bullocks for draft to buffaloes or cattle for milk and poultry for eggs & meat. There is a need for increasing the heads of live stock to supplement income by selling products. Production for market even at the expense of consumption at home has become quite common in many areas of Sindh. There are pockets of organised live stock farming, such as cattle farms (or colonies) and poultry farms located mainly in the urban areas. Most other units are of small size and not well kept.
As per live stock census 1996, the population of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in Naushehro Feroze district were recorded at 309207, 395090, 110529 and 526528 respectively. The population of live stock grew by 4.7% cattle, 5.7% buffaloes, 1.3% sheep and 4.8% goats over the last live stock census enumerated in 1986.(Table No.7)
Meat, hair, hides, skins and wool are the other major products of live stock. Beef is the most important source of meat. But most of this beef is produced from discarded old bullocks, milch cattle and buffaloes, and buffalo calves. Mutton comes next in the market place, and it is provided by a variety of goats and sheep.
During the year 1996-97 it was reported that 48117 animals were slaughtered in the Naushehro Feroze district. Out of the total slaughtered animals, 12684 cattle, 9229 buffaloes, 6272 sheep and 11932 goats were slaughtered. It was estimated that 4.1% cattle, 2.3% buffaloes, 5.7% sheep and 2.3% goats were slaughtered out of the total live stock population in 1997-98. It was observed that slaughtering of cattle was increased by 93.7% whereas in case of buffaloes, sheep and goats were decreased by 1.5%, 54.6% and 54.9% respectively.( Table No.8)
In order to meet the requirements of meat and milk, live stock farming seems to be necessary in joint venture of public/private sector or helping private sector in importing the livestock for establishing live stock farms through loans on easy terms & conditions. The Naushehro Feroze district posses vast potential for establishing livestock farming in the district.
3.7 Veterinary Institution.
The under nourishment, disease and internal parasites, act as a serious constraint on animal production. The animal have to be guarded against ill health, and preventive/curative measures are required to be taken regularly. The veterinary hospitals, dispensaries and centres provide preventive and curative services for disease control for live stock.
Table No.9 depicts that in Naushehro Feroze district one veterinary hospital, 9 dispensaries and 28 veterinary centres were functioning during the year 1997-98. In all 38 veterinary institutions were available to provide health coverage and treatment facilities to the entire livestock of the district. Total number of 866 veterinary Institutions were established in the Province of Sindh which translated into the health care ratio of one veterinary Institution for 2628 live stock. It is worked out that Naushehro Feroze district had 4.4% of the total veterinary Institutions in Sindh. (Table No.9)
Institution Sindh Naushehro Feroze %age Share Hospital 64 1 1.6% Dispensaries 115 9 7.8% Centres 687 28 4.1% Total 866 38 4.4%
The establishment of veterinary hospitals/centres at district, tahsil and taluka level has hardly contributed towards live stock disease control. Though expansion of live stock dispensaries and centres in the rural area has partially been successful in disease control there is a dire need for diversification of veterinary health institutions from cities to rural areas.
The existing position indicates that 130417 animals were treated, and 155913 animals were vaccinated for the control of various diseases in veterinary institutions thereby representing 9.7% of curative and 11.6% of preventive coverage over the total live stock population in Naushehro Feroze district.
3.8 Inland Fisheries:
For Inland fishing, main economic activity is practised in rivers, lacks and ponds, etc. in Sindh province. Fish not only supplements protein deficiency of food but also earns foreign exchange for the country. Fisheries contributes to both the national income and export earnings.
Inland fish production has been increasing over the years. In Naushehro Feroze district the inland fish production registered an increase of 11.7% to 86 m.tonnes in 1997 over the preceding. It is estimated that Naushehro Feroze district contributes 0.1% of total 91903 m.tonnes inland fish production of Sindh. It is reported that 150 fishermen were engaged full time in the fisheries sector whereas 885 fishermen contributed their services for part time during the year 1997. Total number of boats used for the catchment of fish were 147. Of these, 69 boats were sail type and 31 boats were row type.(Table No.10)
Per capita consumption of inland fish in the province of Sindh is very low i.e. 3.1 kg only. Keeping in view of the high rate population growth, production from land resources will not be able to keep up with the population increase. Protein deficiency could become serious problem in near future. In order to solve this, fish production needs proper attention to exploit the abundant resources to meet the protein needs of a growing population.
3.9 Forest:
Forests are not only necessary for habitation of livestock population but also instrumental in improving environmental quality and dependable source for meeting domestic energy requirements of fuel wood. Besides it helps in conservation of soils, improve environment by controlling pollution, cause rainfall and climatic changes supplement source of energy and stabilize gas and oil prices. The forestry programme in Sindh envisages management of forest on commercial basis in the Riverine forests, irrigation plantation forests, mangrove forests, development of Social Forestry, Agriculture, Coconut and Range lands.
Total forest area in Sindh is 1161 thousand hectares or 8.3% of the Sindh province area which is far below the desired ratio of 20 to 30 percent considered necessary for balanced ecology. The per capita forest area being 0.039 hectare in Sindh province or 0.032 hectares in the country was also quite low as compared to the world average of about 1.0 hectare.
In Naushehro Feroze District, the forest area is spread over 3.0 thousand hectares which is 0.3% of the total area under forest in Sindh in the year 1997-98. Naushehro Feroze district produced 40.0 thousand cubic feet timber wood and 19.1 thousand cft. fire wood at the value of Rs.814.0 thousand which contributes about 4.6% of the total value of forest Timber & Fire wood in Sindh in 1996-97.(Table No.11).
The total forest out-put was decreased by Rs.16.3 thousand from Rs.806.4 thousand in 1996-97 to Rs.790.1 thousand in 1997-98 thereby declining 2.0% earnings from forest in Naushehro Feroze district.
In order to meet the standard ratio of 20-30% land as forest there is a need to bring more area of 57.4 to 87.6 thousand hectares under forest whereas in fact there is a substantial potential of growing agro-forest in Naushehro Feroze .
Progress in increasing forest area has been limited due to financial and social constraints. The only need to increase the forest wealth in the province of Sindh as well as in country is to extensively grow trees on farm lands. In order to involve farming community in tree growing activity, social forestry programmes have been launched through out in the country with attractive incentives in the form of subsidized supply of planting stock, partial payment of planting cost, free protection of planted areas for a limited period of time and fair return to the farmers. The tree plantation on katcha/pucca road/canal path and in Government offices, health/education institution shall continue to be encouraged.
3.10 Food Storage:
Maintenance of food grain reserves is necessary to meet the off season requirements and to stabilize the prices. To achieve this end storage facilities are required by the producers as well as by marketers, processors and the government. The farmer needs storage in order to sell when prices are favourable and reduce seasonal fluctuations in prices. The government requires stocks to carry out the country through bad years. Government role as the distributary agency of essential items necessitates enlargement of storage facilities.
The main thrust of government storage policy is to make available proper storage facilities, bring improvement in grain handling system & reduce grain losses to ensure the supply of adequate and good quality of food grains to the consumers. Food storage in public sector were provided for wheat, rice & cotton.
As a result of significant increase in domestic production and future needs of storage for important agricultural commodities and inputs, the demand for increase in storage capacity has become acute.
As per information provided in table No.12 the storage capacity of 746120 metric tonnes was available with government of Sindh. Of these, 95% godown's capacity owned by food department. Additionally, 0.4% H.type storage accommodation was constructed through annual development programme while 4.6% storage facility was provided at an open plinth. Whereas Naushehro Feroze district had storage accommodation with total capacity of 711120 metric tonnes. In addition, district had the open plinth storage facility of 35000 metric tonnes. CHAPTER 3-A
Electricity is essential for urban/rural development in all sectors of economy and in all walks of life. Provision of electricity to rural people is, in other words, a source of happiness and prosperity to rural masses. Generally, electricity in rural areas is provided in rural settlement with population of 200 and above. WAPDA is the sole authority to electrify villages under different programmes.
As per population census of 1998, in district Naushero Feroze, there were 1583 rural settlements with population 707 and above. WAPDA has so far electrified 707 villages. There are still 876 villages which need to be electrified.
4.1 The manufacturing establishments in district Naushehro Feroze are reported as 15 units during the latest census of manufacturing Industries (CMI) 1997. By comparing with the previous census that took place in 1990-91, under which 3 units were reported, it shows that 12 units have been increased. The leading order of the manufacturing groups during 1997-98 is given below:
S.No. Group No.of Units functioning---- ----- -----------1. Cotton Ginning 102. Rice Mills 13. Miscellaneous 1 4. Oil Mills 25. Sugar 1 ------------ 15 ------------
4.2 The detailed position of above mentioned Cotton Ginning Sugar Mills and Rice Mill (Location wise) is given as follows:
Taluka Naushehro Feroze.
4.3 In this taluka there are 4 establishments (3 Cotton Ginning and one Oil Mill) reported during the census of manufacturing industries (CMI) 1997-98 against the total number of 15 units for the whole district.

Taluka Kandiaro.
4.4 In this taluka, there are 5 industrial units including 3 Cotton Ginning Mills, one Oil Mill and a Rice Mill as reported during the last census.
4.5 In the rest of District Naushehro Feroze, there are only 6 Industrial Units including 4 units in Moro and 2 units in taluka Bhirya as reported during the census (Detail given in table No.4.1).
4.7 There is one Sugar Mill in Naushehro Feroze district located in Shahpur Jhanian taluka Moro. An area of 23492 hectors with production of 1402514 Tonnes was brought under Sugar Cane cultivation. The field production at 58.2 tonnes yield per hector happens to be on higher side. However, the Sugar Cane requirements of the mill are also being fulfilled by procuring additional Sugar Cane from other districts.
4.8 There is no any Industrial establishment under Sindh Small Industries Corporation in Naushehro Feroze district. There are only 8 Small Industrial Units functioning under self-employment schemes and also one project with 37 employees capacity is under process in the district. (Detail is given in table -4.2).

5.1 Road net work is a vehicle for economic development and social change. It is used as an Indicator for computing the stage of economic development. Efficient road network not only develops a quick and efficient transportation system but also opens up new area hitherto remained closed. It brings about social integration among rural and urban sectors and greatly assist in accessibility to basic needs i.e. schools, hospitals, etc. It brings rural areas in constant touch with urban segment of society and creates better understanding necessary for social change and political awareness.
5.2 National High Way passes through the district headquarter and all the Taluka Headquarters connecting them directly. A total of 968.12 metalled road and 222.14 kms. unmetalled roads lie in Naushehro Feroze district.
5.3 The main Railway line between Lahore and Karachi passes through some towns of the District such as Padidan, Bhirya Road and Mehrab-Pur. All the taluka headquarters are also connected by loope lines such as Mehrab pur via Tharu Shah to Moro, Padidan via Tharo Shah to Moro and Nawab Shah via Sakrand to Moro. But the system of this railway lines is out of use now.
5.4 Important road links in Naushero Feroz district are given as under:-
i. Road from Naushero Feroz to Padidan. ii. Road from Naushero Feroze to Mithiani. iii. Road from Naushero Feroze to Tharu Shah. iv. Road from Sadhuja to Deparja Phul. v. Road from Sadhuja to Padidan via Phul. vi. Road from Kandiaro to Lakha road. vii. Road from Kandiaro to Tharu Shah. viii.Road from Moro to Chandarsingh via Trimori. ix. Road from Moro to Dadu via Lalia Patan.
5.5 Among the means of transportation buses, motor cars, jeeps, van, loading trucks, mini trucks, bullock cats and donkey carts are used. Most of the commercial goods are transported by loading trucks, vans and by railway.
5.6 Upto June 1998, there were 968.12 kms. of metalled roads and 222.4 kms. of katcha roads. The over all position (by type of roads) is as under:-
i. National/Provincial Roads 561.22 -- 561.22ii. Rural Roads 55.78 178.2 233.98iii. Farm to Market Road 351.12 43.94 395.06 --------------------------------- Grand Total: 968.12 222.14 1190.26 ---------------------------------
5.7 Details of above roads (taluka-wise) are given in Table No.1.
5.8 For identifying the development gaps there are certain standards about adequacy of roads which are as under:
i) 0.50 km. of Pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographic area. ii) Road density based on cultivable area. (2 km. per 1 sq. km.). iii) Road density based on cropped area (1 km. per 1 sq. km.) iv) Road network connecting settlements of 1000+ and 500+ population. v) Road length per 10,000 population. vi) Movement of persons goods and services.
5.9 The available international standard related to agriculture postulates that there should be atleast 2 km. of road for every of cultivable area. Modification of this standard appears necessary from two angles: Firstly, this standard includes katcha roads as well whereas we would like to evolve a standard in terms of metalled road only. Secondly, the standard is related to cultivable area which is invariably greater than cropped area. The cropped area standard of 1 km. of metalled road per of cropped area is also misleading. As in irrigated area, it must be much higher than in deserted/hilltorian areas. However, the settlements located in unirrigated zone also require special attention and connecting of 1000+ & 500+ villages appears appealing except some settlements located in unproductive zones (desert, hill tracts) the settlements lying therein with population 1000+ should at least be connected.

5.10 Under the population standard, urban settlements with large population would get more roads. However, the data of movement of persons, goods and services is not easily available.
5.11 Under these circumstances, the standard based on geographical area is most suited i.e. (0.5 km. of pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographical area).
5.12 Super imposing the chosen/agreed standard of 0.5 km. of metalled Road for one sq. km. of geographical area, we need a total of 1510.50 kms. of metalled road. With the existing road length pitched at 968.12 kms. additional road length of 542.38 km. as per (development gap) is required to be constructed to meet the required standard in District Naushero Feroze. Details are given at Table No.2.
5.13 A simple taluka wise analysis of the road situation in the district is given in Table No.2. The table shows pucca road densities in terms of K.M. per of geographical area wherein it is evident that Kandiaro taluka is by far the most back ward taluka in so far as pucca road facility is concerned. The pucca road density for this taluka works out as 0.26 K.M per of geographical area as compared to the respective figures of 0.32 K.M for the district.
5.14 According to High ways Department's road statistics Sindh Province had a total of 20781.45 Km of pucca road upto June 1998 out of this, 968.12 kms. (4.65%) were in Naushero Feroz District which compare well with its population share of 3.54%. Comparative position of road length and densities in the geographical areas of various districts may be seen in Table No.3. CHAPTER-6
The Majority of Schools in the District belonging to Government are functioning under the supervision of District Education Officer (Male/Female). Education is basic right of the people, therefore Primary Education for Children male/Female is mandatory and it is provided free of cost in the province of Sindh. The formal Educational structure in Sindh is divided into four main streams, the first level known as primary refers to Grade I-V for age of school going population 5-9 years, 2nd stage includes middle secondary, elementary and higher secondary. The third stream is called college education which consists of higher education. After completion of the college education, a candidate is awarded Bachelor degree in Arts/Commerce or Science. Duration of post secondary education varies in Technical and Professional fields, the Poly Technic Institutes offer four years B. Tech course. A Bachelor degree in medicines requires five years education. Similarly Bachelor degree courses in Engineering, Agriculture and Veterinary medicines are awarded of four years duration after the intermediate examination.
An additional two years after the bachelor degree are required to acquire a master degree in Arts/Commerce or Science leading to award of Ph.D degree which may require two or three more years after the completion of master degree course.
In the existing Primary Schools network during 1997-98 in Naushehro Feroze, there were total 1972 schools including mosque schools, out of which 1864 schools were located in rural areas and 108 schools in urban areas, urban schools of total 108 were further bifurcated into 74 male and 34 female schools. Total primary enrolment of 136175 souls was noted having (87326 male and 48849 female) in the district. 5140 teaching staff was engaged in providing primary education including 1038 female teachers.
Teacher student ratio worked out on the basis of information received from the Education Department stands at 1:21 1:47 and 1:26 for male, female and both sexes respectively.
The participation rate at primary level calculated on the basis of population projection stands at 76% for both sexes.
In Naushehro Feroze District, there were 116 closed/on paper Primary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 839 boys and 81 girls schools were lacking toilets. 706 schools were without drinking water facility. 990 Primary schools including 63 girls schools are without boundary wall. 410 schools are functioning either in rental building or are shelterless. 552 schools require repair, where as 78 schools were working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
The Social Action programme SAP has taken care of the idea by enhancing female enrolments and developed following criteria which will boost up the female primary education.
(a) The first school in a area shall be established as mixed school. The Second School in the same areas shall be girls school.
(b) No existing primary school within the range of 1.5 km.
(c) The age group population of 5-9 years must be 100.
For universalization of primary education there is need of opening new schools which will provide additional enrolment resulting in increase of literacy rate. There is need of reactivation of closed schools. And also there is need of resorting the existing enrolment for which reconstruction/improvement in existing schools is required.
To achieve the goal following are the recommendations.
1. Stoppage of transfer/deputation of teacher from village schools to urban area or place of their choice. 2. The closed schools located at remote places/or in a settlements below criteria and having no school building may officially be declared as closed and a new school may be established at a deserving rural settlement that falls on the population criteria etc.
3. In future, while appointing primary school teachers (male/female), preference may be given to local area teachers. Due to this at least "non local teachers" will not be the reason for closure of the schools.
B. CONSOLIDATION OF EXISTING PRIMARY SCHOOLS: 1. Buildings may only be provided to already established school functioning in a temporary accommodation running under trees in Jhugis or rented building and having atleast enrolment of 60 children.
2. Furniture/Electricity/Water/Toilet/Latrine facility may be provided to such an established schools that have suitable building and having no such facilities in the first instance.
3. Re-adjustment of existing schools buildings may be done through administrative steps. A simple executive order issued for introduction of double shift programme in urban/rural locations will change the scenario and will also save the anticipated development expenditure to be incurred on provision of separate building facility for boys & girls.
4. The boys school buildings located in rural settlements with 1000 and above population can be provided with additional class rooms if required in order to make the school five roomed.
1. Instead of opening new primary schools for boys (alongwith construction of a new building) in rural settlements of 500-999, following strategy is proposed to be adopted:
a) In case of a building available for girls school, 2 shifts approach may be adopted. This will result in full utilization of the available school buildings.
b) Only mosque schools may be opened, where there is a gap in rural settlements below 500 population at the initial stage. After three years the mosque schools that attain an enrolment of 50 or more, (based on evaluation) may be converted into a primary school. The building may be provided to such school where there is no school building already available in the village.
3. No new building may be provided where the schools can run in shifts in the existing buildings of a primary school for boys or girls. This type of administrative action will reduce the development cost to be incurred on construction of new buildings.
In urban area, co-education at primary level may be introduced and female teacher may be appointed/posted in primary schools.
Secondary education consists of middle/high schools. In its existing position there were 127 middle schools (85 male and 42 female) in district Naushehro Feroze with enrolment of 10025 and 704 teachers as per information available for 97-98.
As regards the high schools, there were 64 high schools (46 for male and 18 for female) in the district during 1997-98. There were working 1568 teachers to coupe with the enrolment of 33614.
In Naushehro Feroze District, there were 5 closed/on paper Secondary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 48 boys and 9 girls schools were lacking toilets. 53 schools were without drinking water facility. 58 Secondary schools including 8 girls schools are without boundary wall. 23 schools are functioning either in rental building or are shelterless. 79 schools require repair, whereas 6 schools were working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
In order to provide secondary education, urban locations must be covered with secondary school of male as well as female in case of non availability of school. Initially, middle school may be provided which could be up-graded to high school later on as per requirement. There are 7 Higher Secondary Schools in Naushehro Feroze district having 8674 enrolment (5343 male 3331 female) with 409 teaching staff.
There are 4 colleges, out of which 3 colleges are reserved for boys and 1 college for girls having 6668 students, same colleges are enriched with teaching staff of 85 male and 7 for female in the district Naushehro Feroze.
Presently, in Naushehro Feroze 6 Commercial training Centres are having enrolment of 214 students. Besides, this 2 vocational institutes for women in Naushero Feroze and Moro Taluka have intake capacity of 100 students with enrolment of 55 female students.
7.1 District Naushero Feroz has 1 major hospital, 2 Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals, 11 Rural Health Centres, 32 Basic Health Units and 10 Dispensaries with total bed capacity of 306. There are 234 doctors and 339 para medical staff in public sector who extend health services to 739210 outdoor and 4422 indoor patients in the district.
7.2 On the basis of existing health facilities, taluka wise details of population per health/bed facility are given in Table No.8.
7.3 The Civil Hospital Located in Naushehro Feroze city provides health facilities to Naushehro Feroze city, its adjoining areas and whole of the district. Other urban localities are either covered with T.H.Q., R.H.C or B.H.U. The Town wise coverage of Health facility is given in Table No. 1.A.
7.4 By the end of December, 1998, the public sector health institutions in the District excluding Naushero Feroz and other urban centres consisted of 11 R.H.Cs, 32 B.H.Us and 10 dispensaries. In addition to above, nine BHUs are under construction in the District. The Taluka-wise details are given in table No.1.B. As per policy of the government, a BHU has been provided in the every Union Council.
7.5 It may be pointed out that thirty seven Union Councils of the district have already been covered with Health Facility of RHC or BHU. However, there are still number of big rural settlements/villages which go without health facilities. The taluka wise Union councils, covered with Health facility, are given in Table No. 7.
7.6 As per prescribed criteria, a Dispensary can be established in a rural settlement with population of 1000 having no health facility within the radius of 2-3 Keeping in view the rural settlement pattern of the population census 1998, the following 264 rural settlements are categorized as big settlements with a population of 1000 & above in Naushero Feroz:
Settlement No.of Covered with DevelopmentSize Settlements Health Facilities Gap As per Population (1998) ----------- ------------- ------------------ --------------
1000 & above 264 56 208

7.7 Out of 264 settlements, 56 are covered with health facility. The rest of 208 settlements are yet to be covered in the Naushero Feroz district.
7.8 In order to make programme a success, the local community participation is necessary. They can share in the development activity by providing piece of land for construction of health facility and labour, etc.
7.9 The Government has accorded the highest priority to preventive programmes such as EPI, AIDS Control Programme, Maleria Control Programme and Health Education. The diseases covered under the EPI programme are the major killers of children. Efforts are being made to cover most of infants under this programme. It is under execution since 1979. The major objectives of the project are as under:-
(i) Vaccination of 90% new born infants and 100% remaining 12-23 months children against Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Measles and Childhood Tuberculosis.
(ii) Vaccination of 70% pregnant ladies and 100% of child bearing age ladies with atleast two doses of Tetanus Toxoid in order to eliminate neo-natal tetanus.
8.1 Potable Water Supply is a pre-requisite for the health of people. But the lack of proper drinking Water Supply and Sanitation in rural as well urban areas has caused wide spread water borne diseases of which diarrhoea among small children happens to be a major killer. The diseases transmitted by water and poor sanitation deplete human energy, resulting in sickness reducing thereby the productivity of the people.
8.2 Water Supply is vitally important sector for the urban and rural population of the district. The rural population distribution in district is quite unique in the sense that it has fewer larger villages and a very large number of small settlements, most of which can hardly be called "Villages"; they are essentially on the farm clusters of population "Widely Scattered". According to the requirements of various settlements (category-wise) Sindh Govt. provides Water Supply and Drainage facilities to the people through its Departments i.e. Public Health Engineering Department and Rural Development Department. The break up of size of village/settlement with %age share are as under:-
SIZE OF VILLAGES NUMBER PERCENTAGE(%) i) Less than 1000 1468 84.76% ii) 1000 and above 264 15.24% Total: 1732 100%
URBAN WATER SUPPLY:8.3 All the Urban localities in district Naushero Feroze are covered with water supply through a piped water system. Besides non-mechanised source of water supply like hand pumps/wells etc. are also used by the people. 8 schemes of water supply have been completed upto year 1996-97. Details of completed water supply scheme (taluka-wise) are given in table No.1.
8.4 So far provision of urban drainage facility in Naushero Feroze district is concerned, all the urban localities are covered with drainage/sewerage or open pucca drain system. 7 schemes of drainage have been completed upto year 1996-97 and presently 3 on-going schemes are carried out with the estimated cost of Rs.50.024 million during the year 1997-98. Taluka-wise details of completed and on-going schemes are given in table No.1.
8.5 The water supply facility in the rural areas of Sindh through a piped water system is to be provided according to the criteria which gives priority to "A rural settlement with population of 1000 and above preferably having brackish ground water". In Naushero Feroze district, 264 rural settlement having population upto 1000 are categorised in-to 3 type of settlements in descending order according to their size of population taking into account the quality of ground water.
8.6 Presently, out of 73 rural settlements having population 2000 and above, 11 settlements have been covered by the water supply facility. In second category which includes 56 settlements with population ranging between 1999 to 1500, 3 rural settlements have been facilitated by water supply schemes while in the third category out of 135 rural settlements 5 have been covered by such facility. Thus, out of total 264 rural settlements, 19 settlements are covered with the required facility of water supply as reported upto June 1997 leaving development gap of 245 uncovered settlements. Taluka-wise details of uncovered settlements and their quality of water is given in table No.3.
8.7 According to criteria 29 additional settlements with brackish water will require water supply schemes on priority basis. Details of completed, water supply schemes and number of brackish water settlements (taluka wise) are given at table No.2 and 3.
8.8 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed water supply schemes (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.5.
8.9 Drainage system in the rural areas of Sindh under the prescribed criteria is provided for "A rural settlement with population 1000 & above preferable having water system". Presently out of total 264 rural settlements, 43 settlements have been covered by the drainage facility. As per categorisation, out of 73 rural settlements having population 2000 and above, 17 settlements are facilitated by the drainage facility. In second category, only 9 settlements out of from 56 have been covered with drainage. Under the third category out of 135 rural settlements 17 settlements are having the facility of drainage system. Taluka wise detail of completed drainage schemes are given in table No.4. 8.10 For providing the Rural Drainage facility to the uncovered rural settlements another 7 schemes are under implementation at the estimated cost of Rs.50.532 million during the current year (i.e.1997-98), leaving a development gap of 214 rural settlements. According to criteria 9 settlements with water supply schemes will require drainage facility on Top Priority basis. The details of taluka wise completed, on-going schemes and uncovered settlements are given in table 2 & 4.
8.11 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed drainage scheme (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.6.
8.12 More than 86% population of rural Sindh resides in villages upto 1000 population. Rural Development Department, Govt. of Sindh has been charged with the responsibility of providing Water Supply and Sanitation facilities in these settlements. Presently, it executes two Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Projects funded by the World Bank and UNICEF respectively. Through these projects, potable water is provided by installing hand pumps while Sanitation facilities are provided by constructing household latrines, and hygiene Education in villages having population of upto one thousand souls.
8.13 In District Naushero Feroze there are a number of 1468 villages with population upto 1000. Rural Development Department has so far provided 227 water supply Schemes through hand pumps in 127 villages and covered 0.047 million population. This leaves the development gap of a large number of small settlements i.e. 1341 villages where this facility is yet to be provided. Taluka wise details are given at table No.7.
8.14 The Rural Development Department has also helped in forming effective Village Organisation to function collectively and carry forward the participatory development approach. The concept is that by using both local and external resources and working together, the development of the villages can take place. In sanitation, households contribute more than the government share. The Rural Development Department component of this project has adopted bold initiatives in Community Participation and Co-ordination with other institutions (government and non-government) to bring a range of services to project villages.
8.15 The project has following components:-
1. Community Development. 2. Health Development. 3. Water Supply. 4. Sanitation. 5. District Co-ordination Committees. 6. Training. 7. Institutional Strengthening. 8. Documentation.
8.16 Under the two projects aided by World Bank and UNICEF, village Organisations are formed. The hand pumps and sanitation schemes are operated and maintained by the communities.
8.17 In most of the urban areas the problem is more of inadequate and inefficient distribution rather than that of water supply availability. Attention should there fore be focused on a better distribution system alongwith an augmentation of suppers.
8.18 In case of sewerage and drainage, the situation is much worse and is aggravated by the expansion of water supply facilities. Provision of sewerage & drainage disposal facilities has therefore to match the programme of water supply.
8.19 Priority should be given to those areas where sweet ground water is not available at a reasonable depth and where water has to be fetched from distance.( Details are given in Table No.3) Similarly, Special consideration has to be given to areas where the rural population presently relies on surface water which is unfit for human consumption.
8.20 In areas where people have installed their own hand pump, priority should be given to sanitational disposal schemes. Piped water supply system is to be restricted to bigger village with a population ranging from 3000 to 5000. Hand pumps are being provided to smaller villages and initial delivery systems should be based on community stand-post and storage tanks.
8.21 Piped water-supply should be provided only at places where underground water is brackish, but here also the quality of material used and the workmanship must be improved. Frequent water leakages due to use of sub-standard pipes and defective implementation of schemes have created further problems through collection of water in the residential areas and damages of the buildings.
8.22 Water-supply through the implementation of water-supply schemes needs to be monitored regularly to ensure that the water is fit for human consumption. This is desirable specially because the water-supply schemes in Sindh do not provide for the filtration or chlorination process. Long-term effect of such water on health of the people needs to be studied.
8.23 Top priority be assigned to the sanitary disposal of sewage and waste-water which has collected in the form of stinking ponds in the vicinity of the towns and the larger rural settlements. The sewage so collected can neither be disposed off through land treatment (since it may cause soil sickness) nor it could be pumped into the flowing canals due to the fear of water pollution. The sewage ponds give rise to mosquito breeding and are likely to pollute the subsoil water which is the source of drinking water in this area. As such the top priority/attention should be given to solve this problem. The sewage could be treated in the oxidation ponds or in the digesting chambers. It would then be easy to dispose off the treated water into the flowing canals.
8.24 The Public Health Engineering Department (PHED)is responsible for planning, designing and construction of Water Supply Schemes in the province essentially in the larger villages having population of 1000 and above as per prescribed criteria. Sanitation/Drainage schemes are also provided by PHED in villages above 1000 persons where water supply schemes have been already provided. Details of such villages already covered/uncovered through drainage may be seen in table No.4.
8.25 Normally after completion of the schemes Public Health Engineering Department used to hand over the completed schemes to the local councils for operation and maintenance who under took maintenance task with great reluctance due to their unsound financial position, lack of technical know-how and doubts about the quality of construction work of completed schemes. As a result most of the completed schemes are poorly maintained by local councils and are either being partly run or closed down without any public utility.
8.26 Present Government has launched the Social Action Programme (SAP) in the Country which aims to improve the quality of life particularly in rural areas by providing basic amenities, such as, primary education, health care, safe drinking water and sanitation.
8.27 The Provincial Government has adopted a "unified policy" which imbibes the community to take operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Schemes on sustainable basis and as such has decided the following measures:-

(a) That all the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme will be dealt on Community basis.
(b) The Community will be motivated to form village development organisations (VDOS) which will closely associated with the implementation of the schemes at all stages and the completed schemes will be taken over by them for O/M and Management.
(c) In view of unsatisfactory financial conditions of most of the rural communities, it has been decided by the Present Government to provide cost of electricity and non routine maintenance, whereas "Community" will bear the cost of engaging operators/personnel and routine maintenance through recovery of user charges from the consumers.


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