Saturday, March 12, 2005

Sukkur Economic Profile


Chapter Title Page No.
District Map I District at Glance 1 - 3
Chapter-1 Geographical Characteristics 4 - 6 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Location 1.3 Topography-(Tract/Zone) 1.4 Climate 1.5 Administrative set up
Chapter-2 Demographic Characteristics 7 - 10
2.1 Population 1998 2.2 Settlement pattern (size) urban/rural. - Statistical Tables
Chapter-3 Agriculture 11 - 36
3.1 Land Utilization 12 3.2 Crop Position 13 3.2.1 Rice 13 3.2.2 Wheat 14 3.2.3 Cotton 14 3.2.4 Sugarcane 14 3.2.5 Minor Crops 15 3.3 Fertilizer 15 3.4 Improved Seed 16 3.5 Pesticides 17 3.6 Livestock 18 3.7 Veterinary Institution 20 3.8 Inland Fisheries 21 3.9 Forest 22 3.10 Food Storage 23 -- Statistical Tables

Chapter-3-A Village Electrification 37
Chapter-4 Manufacturing 38 - 43
4.1 Existing Manufacturing 4.2 Industrial Small Scale Units 4.3 District potentials. - Statistical Tables
Chapter-5 Road Net work (Normal/F.T.M) 44 - 49
5.1 Existing Situation 5.2 Road Standards 5.3 Analysis 5.4 Development Gaps - Statistical Tables
Chapter-6 Education 50 - 59
6.1 Primary Education 6.2 Secondary Education 6.3 High Secondary Education 6.3 College Education 6.4 Technical/Commercial/Vocational Education 6.5 Professional Education 6.6 Medical Education 6.7 Establishment of General University 6.8 Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education - Statistical Tables
Chapter-7 Health 60 - 76
7.1 Existing Position of Health alongwith development gap. - Statistical Tables
Chapter-8 Water Supply & Drainage/ 77 - 91 Sewerage
8.1 Urban Water Supply 8.2 Urban Drainage 8.3 Rural Water Supply 8.4 Rural Drainage 8.5 Facilities provided through Rural Development Department. 8.6 Policy Issues/Options. - Statistical Tables DISTRICT AT GLANCEGENERAL INFORMATIONDISTRICT SUKKUR
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------
Sub-Division Nos. 2 Talukas " 4 Union Councils " 18 Market Committee " - Deh " 266 Villages/Settlements " 558 Metropolitan/Municipal Corp: " 1 Municipal Committees " 1 Town Committees " 2 2. AREA Sq.kms. 4,798
Population (Total) Nos. 8,77,858 Male " 4,65,771 Female " 4,12,087
Rural " 4,25,790 Male " 2,24,259 Female " 2,01,531
Urban " 4,52,068 Male " 2,41,512 Female " 2,10,556
Population Density Per 183
Area Hectare
Cotton " 30,127 Rice " 4,953 Wheat " 44,551 Sugarcane " 4,827 Jawar " 6,318 Barley " - Rape Seed & Mustered " 3,402 Gram " 11,324
Cotton Bales 1,21,969 Rice M.Tons 10,963 Wheat " 1,17,028 Sugarcane " 2,55,259 Jawar " 3,497 Barley " - Rape Seed & Mustered " 3,127 Gram " 9,932
S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------ 5. INDUSTRIAL SETUP
Sugar Factories Nos. - Cotton Ginning Factories " 6 Rice Mills " - Oil Mills " 11 Ice Factories " 1 Others " 33
Villages Electrified(200 & above) Nos. 354 Development Gap (200 & above) " 204
7. COMMUNICATION: Kms. 652.49
Mettled Road " 520.63
Un-Mettled Road (Katcha) " 131.86
Primary Schools Nos. 1,039
a) Male " 864 b) Female " 175
Middle Schools " 56
a) Male " 34 b) Female " 22
High Schools " 51
a) Male " 40 b) Female " 11
Civil Hospital/Other Major Nos. 1 Hospitals
Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals " 2
Rural Health Centres " 3
Basic Health Units " 24
Dispensaries (Govt.) " 6

(2)S.NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT INFORMATION----- ------------ ----- ------------
Rural Water Supply Schemes Nos. 23 (Completed)
Rural W/S Coverage 1000+ " 23 Population Settlements
Development Gap* " 59
Rural Drainage Scheme (Completed) " 26
Rural Drainage (Coverage) 1000+ " 26
Development Gap (1000) Settlement " 56

Sukkur, District headquarter town occupies the status of third large commercial and populated town of province of Sindh after Karachi and Hyderabad. The District Sukkur takes precedence over other districts of province of Sindh by having the largest irrigation system of Asia constructed in 1932 namely Sukkur Barrage. This system of irrigation covers 80 million acres of land through its canal system and is major source of provincial agricultural production. Sukkur airport is the fourth busiest airport of Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad connecting almost all commercially important destination through 48 flights in a week. The biggest Army cantonment of the country located at Pano Akil is also situated at distance of 20 miles from Sukkur city. Sukkur city itself carries historical importance having 400 years old Masoom Shah Minaret the tallest building of 26 meters build by S.Massom Shah Bukhari, an imminent writer of old history on Sindh and Governor. The archaeological site of Arore in Taluka Rohri is also situated at distance of about 10 kilometres besides Masjid Manzilgah, Zindeh Pir and Sadhubela. The city of Sukkur as well as the district is linked with important and strategic National Highway through Lillylod Bridge and Sukkur Barrage. The city acquires focal location in means of communication as it links rest of the provinces namely Punjab, NWFP and Baluchistan through double track railway line on its left side of river Indus and the single track railway line on right side of the river Indus i.e the main trade route in between Sindh and all the provinces. The important industries of the district are sugar, edible oil/ghee, leather, tobacco, rice, cotton ginning, oil mills, flour mills, biscuit factory etc.
The district of Sukkur takes its name from its headquarters town. The district has been reconstituted in 1993 (after 1972 census). The entire Taluka of Shikarpur and Garhi Yasin and three supervisory Tapedar circles of the "old Sukkur - Taluka" were separated from the old Sukkur district to form new district of Shikarpur. Most of the area of Sukkur district is, therefore, now on the left bank of the Indus river. On the right bank of the Indus river the total area of Sukkur is left to only 91 Sq.Km. The district is situated at 27-05' to 48-26' north latitudes and 68-47' to 70-10' east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by Ghotki district, on the east by India, on the south by Khairpur district and on the west by Shikarpur and Jacobabad districts.
Topographically, the district may be divided into two broad parts. A plain cultivated area in the western half and a desert in the eastern half. With the exception of the low limestone hills running from the town of Rohri towards the south, and on the west of Nara Canal. The rest of the area of the district in the western half, is flat and level plain. The hills vary in elevation from 100 to 125 metres. There are four prominent hills namely, Adam Shah hills near Sukkur, Kalka hills at Arore, Laheri hills at Rohri and Shadi Shaheed hills at Kandahra. The eastern half of the district is a waste land. It consists of barren tract of clay and ridges of sand hills covered with caper and thorn jungle.

The district has extremes of climate. The summer season begin in April and lasts upto October. The months of May, June and July are the hottest, when the mean maximum temperature rises to 42C and 28C respectively. The months of August and September are stuffy and suffocating. The winter months are December, January and February. In winter, the climate is dry and mild. The mean maximum and minimum temperature for the months December, January and February is 24C and 9C respectively.
Although cyclones and wind storms are not common, the hot winds which set in early April, blow form morning till evening in the north-westerly direction. The rain fall is poor, the average being 100 to 125 mili meters per year.
Sukkur enjoys the status of a Divisional Headquarter. The total area of the district is 4798 comprising of 4 urban localities i-e Sukkur Metropolitan Corporation, Rohri Municipal Committee and Town Committees of Pano Akil and Kandhra. District Sukkur contains one District Council, 4 Talukas, 18 Union Councils and 266 Dehs. The total area is 3.5% of the Geographical area of Sindh. CHAPTER- 2
2.1 The total population of Sukkur District was recorded 877858 souls according to recently conducted population census 1998 that is 2.93% of the total population of Sindh. It increased by 58% during 1981-98 intercensal period a span of 17 years at an average annual growth rate of 2.75%. Out of its total population 452068 persons or 51% are settled in urban areas and remaining 425790 persons or 49% are located in rural areas. The sex ratio (male per 100 females) is worked out at 113, this ratio is also constituted 111 males for rural and 114 males for urban areas. Town-wise urban population is depicted in table No.I. According to 1998 population census, there are total 139573 households in Sukkur district comprising of 877858 persons thus giving an average size of six persons per household. The taluka wise population of 1998 is depicted in table No.II. Total district is spread in 4798 sq.kms and population density is worked out to 183 persons per in 1998 as compared to 112 persons per in 1981.
2.2 There are 558 settlements of rural settlements having population 200-1000 of which 82 are categorized as settlements of population with 1000+ souls. By definition settlement is defined as "Place of human habitation from one isolated house to a big town or a city with certain identified location and name" on other hand the village as per definition of Board of Revenue Sindh, is defined as "Place of human habitation having atleast ten houses".
2.3 The village in population terms therefore could be defined as a place of human habitation having population of about 70-100 persons (7-10 household size) and above (but not more than 5000) with certain identified location and name. The Rural settlement pattern 200 and above according to survey conducted by Sindh Bureau of Statistics during 1995 are depicted below:
-----------------------------------------------------------------Taluka Settlement having Population 200-499 500-599 1000+ Total-----------------------------------------------------------------Sukkur 6 9 7 22Rohri 91 38 29 158Pano Akil 176 81 42 299Saleh Pat 60 15 4 79-----------------------------------------------------------------Total: 333 143 82 558-----------------------------------------------------------------
Source:- Sindh Bureau of Statistics.
2.4 The above table reveals that number of settlements having 200-499 constitute 60% of the total settlements of 200-1000. The rural settlements having population of 200+ may be considered as a cut off point and need special attention by providing basic socio-economic facility School/Electricity. The rural settlements less than 500 and more than 200 (200-499) clearly qualify for a mosque school and provision of electricity. The rural settlements with population less than 1000 (500-999) may be considered for provision of education, electricity/pucca road facility and the rural settlements with population 1000 and above should be considered for all possible civic amenities to convert them into sub urban localities and to attract surrounding scattered hamlets to voluntary migration. CHAPTER-3
Pakistan's economy has undergone considerable diversification over the years yet the agriculture sector still constitutes its back-bone. With its present contribution to GDP at 24.87 percent, Agriculture accounts for half of the total employed labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings while it serves as the base sector for the country's major industries like textiles and sugar.
The economic development of Sindh is largely dependent on the progress and growth of Agriculture sector. Sindh province contributes significantly towards over all national agriculture with 26% of the cultivated area, 17% of the cropped area and 16% of the irrigated area, 19% of the total forest area, 43% of the total production of rice, 25% of cotton, 14% wheat, 30% sugar cane, 22% other food grains, 59% of marine fish, 60% of inland fish and 28% of the live stock production originates in Sindh. Lower productivity levels per hectare continue to be problem No. 1 of crop production. Over the last ten years period, most insignificant increases are noticeable in yield of major crops in view of efforts under taken to eradicate water-logging and Salinity, provision of new seed varieties, increased use of fertilizer, pesticides, provision of agriculture extension services and on-farm water management practices and close co-ordination among farmers and agricultural field staff. Achievements of self sufficiency in major crop production must, therefore, address to the key issue bottlenecks. The enhancement of yields in the shortest possible time needs to be taken by reviewing existing programme by involving farming community in co-operative manners reducing reliance on extension staff.
The pattern of land use in a region determines crop production. Soil & climate play an important role in the management of cropping pattern of a region. Crop area used for food and cash crops can be taken as an index of the type of land system and the economic use for these crops. Land use data for latest five years reveals that the reported area in Sukkur district remained unchanged at 479.8 thousand hectares. However, not all of this area is cultivable, 67.0% was reported "uncultivable" though its share was 67.5% in 1993-94.
The share of cultivated area (in the area reported) slightly increased from 32.5% in 1993-94 to about 33.0% in 1997-98, Which however, is still much smaller as compared to over all Sindh. On the contrary it reflected higher cropping intensities as compared to Sindh. From the data given in table No.1, though the cropping intensities had been increasing somewhat since last many years, and an acre of land in Sukkur district has almost cropped fully in a year. The cropped area also increased from 143.5 thousand hectares in 1993-94 to 151.2 thousand hectares in 1997-98 with 95.4% cropping intensity.
The cropped area increased by about 5.4% like wise the cultivated area also increased by 1.7% during the period of five years. A small part of the area about 6.8% is being used for grazing or forest and remaining land is lying unused due to unfavourable condition or lack of irrigation water.
It is noted that the pressure of total rural population on cultivated area has increased considerably since last many years. The ratio of cultivated area per person decreased from 0.30 in 1981 to 0.18 in 1997.
There are two main crop seasons; "Kharif" and "Rabi" in Sukkur District. The Kharif season starts from April-May and ends in October-November while the Rabi starts from November-December and ends in April-May. However, due to regional variation in temperature, several factors i.e varieties, availability of water, soil texture etc determine the crop pattern, sowing and harvesting time. The Crops are further categorized into major and minor crops. Rice, Wheat, Sugar-cane and Cotton are the major crops of the district. Gram, Jowar, Rapeseed & Mustard, Mattar, Onion & Masoor fall in the category of minor crops.
3.2.1 RICE:
Rice is an important food as well as highly valued cash crop that earns substantial foreign exchange for the country. Besides, it is also a staple food crop of the people of Sukkur district. Its share in total cropped area was recorded at 3.3%. Despite the relative price having favoured the high yielding varieties, farmers traditionally grow the IRRI, and other varieties in district Sukkur.
The area under rice increased by 24.3% from 6.5 thousand hectares in 1996-97 to 4.9 thousand hectares in 1997-98. Besides, the production of rice went down significantly by 27.1% from 15.0 thousand tonnes to 10.9 thousand tonnes. Similarly yield per hectare also decreased by 3.7% from 2299 kgs. per hectare to 2213 kgs. per hectare.(Table No.2)

3.2.2 WHEAT.
The area and production of wheat for the year 1997-98 were estimated at 44.9 thousand hectares and 117.0 thousand tonnes respectively. The yield, however, was recorded at 2609 kgs. The area under wheat increased by 3.9% during the year 1997-98. The production situation generally remained satisfactorily over the last five years and it grew at the rate of 0.7%.(Table No.2).
3.2.3 COTTON:
Cotton is not only an export earning crop but it also provides raw material to local textile industries in Sukkur as well as Sindh. Its share in production stands at 5.2% in Sindh. The latest estimates of area and production for the year 1997-98 for Sukkur district were recorded at 30.1 thousand hectares and 122.0 thousand bales representing an increase in area by 0.8% and in production by 9.1% over the previous year. Moreover, the yield per hectare also increased by 8.2% from 636 kgs. per hectare in 1996-97 to 688 kgs. per hectare in 1997-98.
Sugar production in the Sindh province depends mostly on sugarcane crop. Keeping in view its importance, great deal of attention has been paid to increase both the area and production of sugarcane. It was reported that during the year 1997-98 the sugarcane area and production upsurged by 3.1% & 12.1% respectively. (Table No.2).
Similarly, the yield per hectare which increased by 8.6% from 48.7 metric tonnes per hectare in 1996-97 to 52.9 metric tonnes per hectare in 1997-98. The increase was mainly due to the attractive incentives to the farmers provided by the sugar mill management and also an increase in support price and favourable climatic condition prevailing in the sugarcane growing areas of district Sukkur.
The information available in table No.3 depicts that Gram, Jowar, Rapeseed & Mustard, Mattar, Onion and Masoor were the minor crops, which contributed the share of 7.5%, 4.2%, 2.3%, 0.5%, 0.3% and 0.3% in the total cropped area of the district Sukkur respectively during the year 1997-98.
Fertilizer is one of the major input which can enhance the crop production. The timely application and use of correct doze is an essential factor for increasing crop yields. Its contribution towards increased crop production is upto 50%.
Mostly the soils of Sukkur district are fertile but there are also deficit in nitrogenous and phosphatic nutrients. Nitrogen is very essential for accelerating plant vigour, producing large number of flowers, number of sound seeds per capsule and their proper size. It increases protein content of the seed as well. Phosphorous contributes in photosynthetic activities of plants, formation of seed, fibre and proper development of root system.
The recommended dozes of nitrogenous, phosphatic & potassium fertilizer varies from crop to crop and other factors like fertility of soil, topography, availability of water, use of quality seed, proper preparation of land etc.
The information available in table No.4 on off-take of fertilizer for the period from 1993-94 to 1997-98 depicts that it declined at the rate of 17.2% per annum in Sukkur district. The total off-take of fertilizer (N+P+K) in Sukkur district in both the Kharif and Rabi seasons of 1997-98 was 22.1 thousand nutrients tonnes which was 16.0% higher than the corresponding period of the last year. However, the figures show a drastic decline in off-take of fertilizer by 62.5% during the year 1994-95 over the last year where it was 56.8 thousand M.tonnes.
It is estimated that off-take of fertilizer in Sukkur district was 3.7% of the total off-take in Sindh.
A quality of seed is a basic requirement for increasing the production and productivity of the crop. It is a low cost input but has the potential to increase crop yield on an average by 20% as compared to non-certified seeds.
It is reported that sale of certified seeds has been declining since many years. The figures indicate in table No.5 that the sale of wheat and paddy and cotton certified seeds drastically decreased by 32.1%, 66.0% and 41.2% respectively over the period of last five years. The sale of wheat certified seed was recorded at 5.1 thousand kg. mds. at the cost of Rs.2329.9 thousand during the year 1997-98 which was 4.1% higher than the preceding year. It is estimated that 2.0 thousand hectares of wheat crop were cultivated under certified seed which was only 2.2% of the total cropped area under wheat in Sukkur district.
The distribution of improved paddy seed was estimated at 220 kg. mds. with a total outlays of Rs.105 thousand during the year 1997-98. Its share to the total cropped area under paddy in Sukkur was at 3.6%. Similarly the sale of cotton certified seed is reported at 1.5 thousand kgs. maunds with estimated cost of Rs.2172 thousand in the year 1997-98 which was 8.2% lesser than the previous year. Likewise its share in the total cropped area was 8.0%.
The most farmers use their own (farm) or from market and vast majority have little access for quality control as the public agencies and market agencies do not provide more than 3 to 17 percent of good and certified seed for these crops. The less use of improved seed is one of the most serious factor for obtaining low yields.
3.5 Pesticides.
Pesticides plays major role in protecting cops from the attack of pest and disease. It is estimated that crops losses, during the growth season and after harvesting, caused by insect & pests are considerable high to the extent of 25%. Many of these losses are avoidable, if proper preventive and curative measures are taken. Plant protection measures, dependent mainly on pesticides, are grossly inadequate even for the four leading crops. The most preferred use of plant protection measures on crops are now the ground sprays both as preventive and curative measures.
Increase in cropping intensities and cultivation pattern help the development of permanent flora for retaining the sufficient quantity of seed in soil. The application of tillage operation including hand labour for control of weeds are not traditionally practised due to shortage of labour and its high costs. Weedicides, are not mostly used, however, only insignificant progressive farmers are applying weedicides in wheat crop.
It is reported in table No.6 that the area of 1253 hectares under wheat crops was treated with 2.6 metric tonnes weedicide for the control of weeds which covered only 1.4 % of the total area under wheat in Sukkur district in 1997-98.(Table No.6)
The latest information available on use of pesticides indicates that the plant protection measures were carried out over an area of 1511 hectares under rice crop which utilized the pesticide of 1.8 metric tonnes. The coverage was only 30.4% of the total area cultivated under rice in district Sukkur.
Cotton crop is attacked by large number of insect & pests from sowing to picking stages. In Sukkur district, 66.2 thousand hectares under cotton were treated for the control of insect pests. The coverage was 220.0% of the total area under cotton which consumed 408.5 metric tonnes of pesticides. The coverage figure indicate that the use of pesticides was applied on the same area more than twice.
Similarly, Sugar Cane crop with an area of 3.5 thousand hectares was protected from the attack of insect pests. The 3.9 metric tonnes pesticides were used with a coverage of 73.0% of the total area under sugar cane in Sukkur district.
3.6 Live Stock:
Live Stock is one of the major sub-sector of Agriculture and back bone of our economy. It contributes roughly one third in the total share of Agriculture GDP. Its main by-products including hides and skins have substantial potential as semi-finished products. A substantial growth of Livestock products including milk, meat, beef, mutton, poultry and eggs have been noticed since many years.
It has been estimated that over three - fourths of the farm power comes from animals, and they are used for most of the farm operations. Bullocks provide the draft power on farm and in transport around the villages.
Most farmers traditionally keep a few heads of livestock ranging from bullocks for draft to buffaloes or cattle for milk and poultry for eggs & meat. There is a need for increasing the heads of live stock to supplement income by selling products. Production for market even at the expense of consumption at home has become quite common in many areas of Sindh. There are pockets of organised livestock farming, such as cattle farms (or colonies) and poultry farms, located mainly in the urban areas. Most other units are of small size and not well kept.
As per live stock census 1996, the population of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in Sukkur district were recorded at 208650, 170517, 56218 and 272172 respectively. The population of live stock grew by 3.4% cattle, buffaloes by 3.0%, and goats by 0.9% where it declined by 0.02% in case of sheep over the last live stock census enumerated in 1986. (Table No.7).
Meat, hair, hides, skins and wool are the other major products of live stock. Beef is the most important source of meat. But most of this beef is produced from discarded old bullocks, milch cattle and buffaloes, and buffalo calves. Mutton comes next in the market place, and it is provided by a variety of goats and sheep.
During the year 1997-98 it was reported that 177037 animals were slaughtered in the Sukkur district. Out of the total slaughtered animals, 26474 cattle, 24099 buffaloes, 44826 sheep and 81638 goats were slaughtered. It was estimated that 12.7% cattle, 14.1% buffaloes, 79.7% sheep and 30.0% goats were slaughtered out of the total live stock population in 1997-98. It was observed that slaughtering of cattle was increased by 16.3%, 78.6% buffaloes, 82.0% sheep and 88.7 goats. ( Table No.8).
In order to meet the requirements of meat and milk, live stock farming seems to be necessary in joint venture of public/private sector or helping private sector in importing the livestock for establishing live stock farms through loans on easy terms & conditions. The Sukkur district posses vast potential for establishing livestock farming in the district.
3.7 Veterinary Institution.
The under nourishment, disease and internal parasites, act as a serious constraint on animal production. The animal have to be guarded against ill health, and preventive/curative measures are required to be taken regularly. The veterinary hospitals, dispensaries and centres provide preventive and curative services for disease control for live stock.
Table No.9 depicts that in Sukkur district 4 veterinary hospitals, 6 dispensaries and 20 veterinary centres were functioning during the year 1997-98. In all 30 veterinary institutions were available to provide health coverage and treatment facilities to the entire livestock of the district. The total 866 veterinary Institutions were established in the Province of Sindh which translated into the health care ratio of one veterinary Institution for 2628 live stock. It is worked out that Sukkur district had 3.5% of the total veterinary Institutions in Sindh.
Institution Sindh Sukkur %age Share Hospital 64 4 6.3% Dispensaries 115 6 5.2% Centres 687 20 2.9% Total 866 30 3.5%
The establishment of veterinary hospitals/centres at district, tahsil and taluka level has hardly contributed towards live stock disease control. Expansion of livestock dispensaries and centres in the rural area has been partially successful in disease control. There is a dire need for diversification of veterinary health institutions from cities to rural areas.
The existing position indicates that 485634 animals were treated, and 229833 animals were vaccinated for the control of various diseases in veterinary institutions thereby representing 68.6% of curative and 32.5% of preventive coverage over the total live stock population in Sukkur district.
3.8 Inland Fisheries:
Inland fishing, the main economic activity is practised in rivers, lacks and ponds etc. in Sindh province. Fish not only supplements protein deficiency of food but also earns foreign exchange for the country. Fisheries contributes to both the national income and export earnings.
Inland fish production has been increasing over the years. In Sukkur district the inland fish production registered with an increase of 7.4% to 2265 m.tonnes in 1997 over the preceding year. It is estimated that Sukkur district contributes 2.5% of total 91903 m.tonnes inland fish production of Sindh. It is reported that 820 fishermen were engaged full time in the fisheries sector whereas 520 fishermen contributed their service for part time during the year 1997. Total number of boats used for the catchment of fish were 385. Of these, 130 boats were sail type and 255 boats were row type.(Table No.10)
Per capita consumption of inland fish in the province of Sindh is very low i.e. 3.1 kg only. Keeping in view of the high rate population growth, production from land resources will not be able to keep up with the population increase. Protein deficiency could become serious problem in near future. In order to solve this, fish production needs proper attention to exploit the abundant resources to meet the protein needs of a growing population.
3.9 Forest:
Forests are, not only necessary for habitation of livestock population but also instrumental in improving environmental quality and provides dependable source for meeting domestic energy requirements of fuel wood. Besides it helps in conservation of soils, improve environment by controlling pollution, cause rainfall and climatic changes supplement source of energy and stabilize gas and oil prices. The forestry programme in Sindh envisages management of forest on commercial basis in the Riverine forests, irrigation plantation forests, mangrove forests, development of Social Forestry, Agriculture, Coconut and Range lands.
Total forest area is Sindh was 1161 thousand hectares or 8.3% of the Sindh province area which is far below the desired ratio of 20 to 30 percent considered necessary for balanced ecology. The per capita forest area being 0.039 hectare in Sindh province or 0.032 hectares in the country was also quite low as compared to the world average of about 1.0 hectare.
In Sukkur District the forest area is spread over 51.0 thousand hectares which is 4.4% of the total area under forest in Sindh in the year 1997-98. Sukkur district produced 55.0 thousand cubic feet timber wood and 27.0 thousand cft. fire wood at the value of Rs.391.1 thousand which contributes about 2.2% of the total value of forest Timber & Fire wood in Sindh in 1997-98.(Table No.11)
The total forest out put was increased by Rs.852.3 thousand from Rs.384.8 thousand in 1996-97 to Rs.1237.1 thousand in 1997-98 which showed a remarkable increase of 221.0% in terms of value in Sukkur district.
In order to meet the standard ratio of 20-30% land as forest there is a need to bring more area of 43.2 to 90.2 thousand hectares under forest where as in fact there is a substantial potential of growing agro-forest in Sukkur .
Progress in increasing forest area has been limited due to financial and social constraints. The only need to increase the forest wealth in the province of Sindh as well as in country is to extensively grow trees on farm lands. In order to involve farming community in tree growing activity, social forestry programmes have been launched through out in the country with attractive incentives in the form of subsidize supply of planting stock, partial payment of planting cost, free protection of planted areas for a limited period of time and fair return to the farmers. The tree plantation on katcha/pucca road/canal path and in Government offices, health/education institution shall continue to be encouraged.
3.10 Food Storage:
Maintenance of food grain reserves is necessary to meet the off season requirements and to stabilize the prices. To achieve this end storage facilities are required by the producers as well as by marketers, processors and the government. The farmer needs storage in order to sell when prices are favourable and reduce seasonal fluctuations in prices. The government requires stocks to carry out the country through bad years. Government role as the distributary agency of essential items necessitates enlargement of storage facilities.
The main thrust of government storage policy is to make available proper storage facilities, bring improvement in grain handling system & reduce grain losses to ensure the supply of adequate and good quality of food grains to the consumers. Food storage in public sector were provided for wheat, rice & cotton.
As a result of significant increase in domestic production and future needs of storage for important agricultural commodities and inputs, the demand for increase in storage capacity has become acute.
As per information total storage capacity of 746120 metric tonnes was available with government of Sindh. Of these, 95% godown were owned by food department. Additionally, 0.4% H.type storage accommodation was constructed through annual development programme while 4.6% storage facility was provided at an open plinth.
Sukkur district had H.type storage accommodation with capacity of 39500 metric tonnes. In addition district had the open plinth storage capacity facility of 2000 metric tonnes. CHAPTER 3-A
Electricity is essential for urban/rural development in all sectors of economy and in all walks of life. Provision of electricity to rural people is a source of happiness and prosperity to rural masses. Generally electricity in rural areas is provided in rural settlement with population of 200 and above. WAPDA is the sole authority to electrify villages under different programmes.
As per population census of 1998, in district Sukkur, there were 558 rural settlements with population 200 and above. WAPDA has so far electrified 354 villages. There are still 204 villages which need to be electrified.
4.1 The manufacturing establishments in district Sukkur (as shown in table No.4.1) were reported as 51 units during Census of Manufacturing Industries (CMI), 1997-98. By comparing with the previous census that took place in 1990-91, under which 48 units were reported, it shows that 3 more units have been increased. The leading order of the manufacturing groups during 1997-98 is given below:
S.No. Group No.of Units functioning---- ----- -----------
i. Cotton Ginning 6ii. Flour 4iii. Food 16 iv. Beverage. 2v. Engineering 1vi. Ice 1vii. Chemical 2viii.Cement 1ix. Oil Mills 11x. Misc: 7 ----------- 51 ------------
4.2 The detailed position/location of above mentioned Cotton Ginning, flour mills, Food, Beverage, Engineering, Ice, Chemical, Cement, Oil mills and others manufacturing (Location wise) is given as follows:
4.3 In this taluka, there are 40 establishments reported during the census of manufacturing industries (CMI) 1997-98 against the total number of 51 units for the whole district.
4.4 In this taluka, there are 5 industrial units which include 3 Cotton Ginning, Oil Mills, and one other unit reported during the last census.
4.5 In the rest of District Sukkur, there are 4 Cotton Ginning, one Ice factory and one Oil mills located in Mirpur Mathelo as reported during the last census.4.6 Detailed position/location of Industrial Units (Taluka-wise) in Sukkur District is given in Table No.6.1.
4.7 One Industrial Estate is established under Sindh Small Industries Corporation in Sukkur district which is located in District Headquarter Sukkur and Rohri. There are 8 small Industrial Units functioning as self-employment schemes and 142 units are functioning under small Industrial Estates (detail is given in table-4.2).
4.8 The details of Industrial groups are as under:
a) Under self Employment Schemes:
i. Steel Engineering 1 ii. Vegetable Ghee 1 iii. Ice Factories 2 iv. Rice Mills 2 v. Others 2 ------- 8 -------
b) Under Small Industrial Estates:
i. Steel Engineering 1 ii. Cotton textile 1 iii. Building Material 7 M.P.G.(R.C.C. Pipe) iv. Dall Mills 5 v. Vegetable Ghee 20 vi. Rice Mills 5 vii. Ice factories 2 viii.Others 101
--------- 132 ---------


4.9 Sindh province is rich in minerals. 19 minerals are being mined within the province. Identifying the order of mineral production during 1997-98, number one is lime-stone by 27,19,808 M.tonnes, number two is coal producing 1164827 tonnes, number three is shale/clay shown as 585805 M.tonnes; fourth position is that of Dolomite with production of 85552 M.tonnes.
4.10 Sukkur district has some mountaineous area of the Sindh province inheriting rich mineral resources. Table No.4.3 shows only limestone produced upto 189212 tonnes during 1997-98 Other detail (year wise)are given in table. CHAPTER-5
5.1 Road net work is considered as a vehicle for economic development and social change. It is used as an Indicator for computing the stage of economic development. Efficient road network not only develops a quick and efficient transportation system but also opens up new area hitherto remained closed. It brings about social integration among rural and urban sectors and greatly assists in accessibility to basic needs i.e. schools, hospitals, etc. It brings rural areas in constant touch with urban segment of society and creates better understanding necessary for social change and political awakening.
5.2 The district head-quarter of Sukkur which lies on the National Highway is connected with all the taluka headquarters through metalled roads.
5.3 Sukkur is a main Junction of railway in the district. However, only North Western part of the district is linked with the railway line. The main line between Peshawar, Lahore and Karachi and Quetta pass through the district. Only 3 talukas headquarters out of 4 are connected by main railway line.
5.4 Important road links in Sukkur district are as under:
i. Road from Sukkur to Jacobabad via Shikarpur.ii. Road from Sukkur to Sadiqabad (Punjab) via Rohri, Pano Akil, Ghotki, Mirpur Mathelo and Ubauro.iii. Road from Sukkur to Khairpur.iv. Road from Sukkur to Shadishaheed (Khairpur) via Laung Faqir.v. Road from Pano Akil to Khanpur via Sultan pur, Thekartho and Shahpur.
5.5 Among the means of transportation, Buses, Motor Cars, Jeeps, Vans, Loading Trucks, Bullock Carts, Camel carts, Donkey Carts and Suzuki Pickups are used. Most of the commercial goods are transported by Loading trucks, Mini Trucks (Mazda), Suzuki pickups and railways.
Existing Situation:
5.6 In June 1998, there were 520.63 km of metalled roads and 131.86 km of Katcha roads. The over all position (by type of roads) is as under:-
S.NO. ITEMS METALLED KATCHA TOTAL ROAD IN ROAD IN LENGTH KM. KM. IN KM.----- ----------------- -------- ------- ------i. Provincial Roads 70.71 -- 70.71ii. Rural Roads 200.73 37.01 237.74iii. Farm to Market Road 249.19 94.85 344.04
---------------------------- Grand Total:- 520.63 131.86 652.49 ----------------------------
Details of above roads (Taluka-wise) are given in Table No.1.

5.7 For identifying the development gaps there are certain standards about adequacy of roads which are as under:
i) 0.50 kilometre of Pucca road per 1 square kilometre of geographic area. ii) Road density based on cultivable area. (2. kilometres per 1 square kilometre). iii) Road density based on cropped area.(1. kilometre per 1.square kilometre). iv) Road network connecting settlements of 1000+ and 500+ population. v) Road length per 10,000 population. vi) Movement of persons goods and services.
5.8 The available international standard related to agriculture postulates that there should be atleast 2 km. of road for every of cultivable area. Modification of this standard appears necessary from two angles: Firstly, this standard includes katcha roads as well whereas we would like to evolve a standard in terms of metalled road only. Secondly, the standard is related to cultivable area which is invariably greater than cropped area. The cropped area standard of 1 km. of metalled road per of cropped area is also misleading. As in irrigated area, it must be much higher than in deserted/hilltorian areas. However, the settlements located in unirrigated zone also require special attention and connecting of 1000+ & 500+ villages appears appealing except some settlements located in unproductive zones (desert, hill tracts) the settlements lying therein with population 1000+ should at least be connected.
5.9 Under the population standard, urban settlements with large population would get more roads. However, the data of movement of persons, goods and services is not easily available.
5.10 Under these circumstances, the standard based on geographical area is most suited i.e. (0.5 km. of pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographical area).
5.11 Super imposing the chosen/agreed standard of 0.5 km. of metalled Road for one sq. km. of geographical area, we need a total of 2399 kms. of metalled road. With the existing road length pitched at 520.63 kms. additional road length of 1878.37 kms. as per (development gap) is required to be constructed to meet the required standard in District Sukkur. Details are given at Table No.2.
5.12 A simple taluka wise analysis of the road situation in the district is given in Table No.2. The table shows pucca road densities in terms of K.M. per of geographical area wherein it is evident that Salehpat taluka is by far the most back ward taluka in so far as pucca road facility is concerned. The pucca road density for this taluka works out as 0.03 K.M per of geographical area as compared to the respective figures of 0.97 K.M for the district.
5.13 According to High ways Department's road statistics Sindh Province had a total of 20781.45 Km of pucca road upto June 1998 out of this, 520.63 kms. (2.50%) were in Sukkur District which compare well with its population share of 2.92%. Comparative position of road length and densities in the geographical areas of various districts may be seen in Table No.3. CHAPTER-6
The Majority of Schools in the District belonging to Government are functioning under the supervision of District Education Officer (Male/Female). Education is basic right of the people, therefore Primary Education for Children male/Female is mandatory and it is provided free of cost in the province of Sindh. The formal Educational structure in Sindh is divided into four main streams, the first level known as primary refers to Grade I-V for age of school going population 5-9 years, 2nd stage includes middle secondary, elementary and higher secondary. The third stream is called college education which consists of higher education. After completion of the college education, a candidate is awarded Bachelor degree in Arts/Commerce or Science. Duration of post secondary education varies in Technical and Professional fields, the Poly Technic Institutes offer four years B. Tech course. A Bachelor degree in medicines requires five years education. Similarly Bachelor degree courses in Engineering, Agriculture and Veterinary medicines are awarded of four years duration after the intermediate examination.
An additional two years after the bachelor degree are required to acquire a master degree in Arts/Commerce or Science leading to award of Ph.D degree which may require two or three more years after the completion of master degree course.
In the existing Primary Schools network during 1997-98 in Sukkur, there were total 1039 schools including mosque schools, out of which 873 schools were located in rural areas and 166 schools in urban areas, urban schools which total 166 were further bifurcated into 116 male and 50 female schools, total primary enrolment of 87403 souls was noted (57557 male and 29846 female) in the district, there, 3835 teaching staff was engaged in providing primary education including 1085 female teachers.
Teacher student ratio worked out on the basis of information received from the Education Department stands at 1:21, 1:28 and 1:23 for male, female and both sexes respectively.
The participation rate at primary level calculated on the basis of population projection stands at 80% for male and 46% for female, over all participation is worked out to 64%.
In Sukkur District, there were 171 closed/on paper Primary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 496 boys and 79 girls schools were lacking toilets. 606 schools were without drinking water facility. 555 Primary schools including 61 girls schools are without boundary wall. 291 schools are functioning either in rental building or shelterless. 299 schools require repair, where as 43 schools were working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
The Social Action programme (SAP) has taken care of the idea by enhancing female enrolments and developed a following criteria which will boost up the female primary education.
(a) The first school in a area shall be established as mixed school. The Second School in the same ares shall be girls school. (b) No existing primary school within the range of 1.5 km. (c) The age group population of 5-9 years must be 100.
For universalization of primary education there is need of opening new schools which will provide additional enrolment resulting in increase of literacy rate. There is need of reactivation of closed schools. And also there is need of resorting the existing enrolment for which reconstruction/improvement in existing schools is required.
To achieve the goal following are the recommendations.
1. Stoppage of transfer/deputation of teacher from village schools to, urban area/or place of their choice.
2. The closed schools located at remote places/or in a settlements below criteria and having no school building may officially be declared as closed and a new school may be established at a deserving rural settlement that falls on the population criteria etc.
3. In future, while appointing primary school teachers (male/female), preference may be given to local area teachers. Due to this at least "non local teachers" will not be the reason for closure of the schools.
1. Buildings may only be provided to already established school functioning in a temporary accommodation, running under trees in Jhugis or rented building and having atleast enrolment of 60 children.
2. Furniture/Electricity/Water/Toilet/Latrine facility may be provided to such an established schools that have suitable building without having no such facilities in the first instance.
3. Re-adjustment of existing school buildings may be done through administrative steps. A simple executive order may be issued for introduction of double shift programme in the urban/rural locations which will change the scenario and will also save the anticipated development expenditure to be incurred on provision of separate building facility for boys & girls.
4. The boys school buildings located in rural settlements with 1000 and above population can be provided with additional class rooms, if required, in order to make the school, five roomed.
1. Instead of opening new primary schools for boys (alongwith construction of a new building) in rural settlements of 500-999, following strategy is proposed to be adopted:
a) In case of a building available for girls school, 2 shifts approach may be adopted. This will result in full utilization of the available school buildings.
b) Only mosque schools may be opened, where there is a gap in rural settlements below 500 population at the initial stage. After three years, the mosque schools that attain an enrolment of 50 or more, (after an evaluation) may be converted into a primary school. The building may be provided to such school where there is no school building already available in the village.
3. No new building may be provided where the schools can run in shifts in the existing buildings of a primary school for boys or girls. This type of administrative action will reduce the development cost to be incurred on construction of new buildings.
In urban area co-education at primary level may be introduced and female teacher may be appointed/posted in primary schools.
Secondary education consists of middle/high schools. In its existing position, there were 52 middle schools (30 male and 22 female) in district Sukkur with enrolment of 4455 and 292 teachers as per information available for 1997-98. There were 4 Elementary School are working in the district.
As regards the high schools, there were 47 high schools (38 for male and 9 for female) in the district during 1997-98. There were working 1395 teachers to coupe with the enrolment of 26825.
In Sukkur District, there were 1 closed/on paper Secondary schools during 1997-98 as per record of SEMIS. 10 boys and 5 girls schools were lacking toilets. 22 schools were without drinking water facility. 21 Secondary schools including 8 girls schools are without boundary wall. 8 schools are functioning either in rental building or shelterless. 47 schools require repair, where as 5 schools were working in dangerous buildings which require immediate attention of concerned officers to avoid any financial and physical loss of lives.
In order to provide secondary education, urban locations must be covered with secondary school of male as well as female in case of non availability of school, initially middle school may be provided which could be up-graded to high school later on as per requirement. There are 4 Higher Secondary Schools in Sukkur District having 7757 enrolment (5219 male 2538 female) with 344 teaching staff.
There are existed 5 colleges in the District out of which 3 colleges are reserved for boys and 2 colleges for girls having 6953 students, same colleges are enriched with teaching staff of 70 male and 64 for female in the district Sukkur and also 2 post-graduate colleges having enrolment of 3164 with 113 teaching staff.
Presently in Sukkur there are 2 Polytechnic institutes one for boys and one for girl having enrolment 483 students, beside this one Government Commercial Training Institute located in taluka Headquarters Sukkur is functioning in the district with enrolment of 140 students.
In addition to above, there are 4 Commercial training centre having enrolment of 233 students, besides this 5 Govt. Vocational Institute for Women are located at 4 major cities 3 in Sukkur, 1 Rohri & Panoakil having intake capacity of 400 girls students with enrolment of 325 students. CHAPTER-7
7.1 District Sukkur has 2 major hospitals (including one Civil hospital), 2 Taluka Head Quarter Hospitals, 3 Rural Health Centres, 24 Basic Health Units and 6 Dispensaries with total bed capacity of 458. There are 420 doctors and 388 para medical staff in public sector who extend health services to 325273 outdoor and 5217 indoor patients in the district.
7.2 On the basis of existing health facilities, taluka wise details of population per health/bed facility are given in Table No.8.
7.3 The Civil Hospital Located in Sukkur city and provides health facilities to Sukkur and its adjoining areas including whole of the district. Other urban localities are either covered with T.H.Q., R.H.C or B.H.U. The Town wise coverage of Health facility is given in Table No. 1.A.
7.4 By the end of December, 1998, the public sector health institutions in the District and other urban centres consisted of 3 R.H.Cs, 24 B.H.Us and 6 dispensaries. In addition to above, one BHU is under construction in the District. The Taluka-wise details are given in table No.1.B. As per policy of the government, a BHU has been provided in the every Union Council.
7.5 It may be pointed out that Union Councils of the district have already been covered with Health Facility of RHC or BHU. However, there are still number of big rural settlements/villages which go without health facilities. The taluka wise Union councils, covered with Health facility, is given in Table No. 7.
7.6 As per prescribed criteria, a Dispensary can be established in a rural settlement with population of 1000 having no health facility within the radius of 2-3 Keeping in view the rural settlement pattern of the population census 1998, the following 82 rural settlements are categorized as big settlements with a population of 1000 & above in Sukkur:Settlement No.of Covered with DevelopmentSize Settlements Health Facilities Gap As per Population (1998) ----------- ------------- ------------------ --------------
1000 & above 82 37 45

7.7 Out of 82 settlements, 37 are covered with health facility. The rest of 45 settlements are yet to be covered in the Sukkur district.
7.8 In order to make programme a success, the local community participation is necessary. They can share in the development activity by providing piece of land for construction of health facility and labour, etc.
7.9 The Government has accorded the highest priority to preventive programmes such as EPI, AIDS Control Programme, Malaria Control Programme and Health Education. The diseases covered under the EPI programme are the major killers of children. Efforts are being made to cover most of infants under this programme. It is under execution since 1979. The major objectives of the project are as under:-
(i) Vaccination of 90% new born infants and 100% remaining 12-23 months children against Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Measles and Childhood Tuberculosis.
(ii) Vaccination of 70% pregnant ladies and 100% of child bearing age ladies with atleast two doses of Tetanus Toxoid in order to eliminate neo-natal tetanus.

8.1 Potable Water Supply is a pre-requisite for the health of people. Lack of proper drinking Water Supply and Sanitation in rural as well urban areas has caused wide spread water borne diseases of which diarrhoea (among small children) happens to be a major killer. The diseases are transmitted by water and poor sanitation which deplete human energy resulting in sickness reducing thereby the productivity of the people.
8.2 Water Supply is vitally important sector for the urban and rural population of the district. The rural population distribution in the district is quite unique in the sense that it has fewer larger villages and a very large number of small settlements, most of which can hardly be called "Villages"; they are essentially on the farm clusters of population "Widely Scattered". According to present arrangements Water Supply and Drainage facilities are being provided to the people by the Departments i.e. Public Health Engineering Department and Rural Development Department. The break up of size of village/settlement with %age share is as under:-
i) Less than 1000. 1403 94.48% ii) 1000 and above 82 5.52% Total: 1485 100%
8.3 All the Urban localities in district Sukkur are covered with water supply through a piped water system. Besides, non-mechanised source of water supply like hand pumps/wells etc. are also used by the people. 10 schemes of water supply have been completed upto year 1996-97 and presently one scheme is on-going at the estimated cost of Rs.67.669 million during the year 1997-98. Details of completed water supply scheme (taluka-wise) are given in table No.1.
8.4 So far provision of urban drainage facility in Sukkur district is concerned, all the urban localities are covered with drainage/sewerage or open pucca drain system. 8 schemes of drainage have been completed upto year 1996-97 and presently one on-going scheme is carried out with the estimated cost of Rs.10.239 million during the year 1997-98. Taluka-wise details of completed and on-going schemes are given in table No.1.
8.5 The water supply facility in the rural areas of Sindh through a piped water system is to be provided according to the criteria which gives priority to "A rural settlement with population of 1000 and above preferably having brackish ground water". In Sukkur district, 82 rural settlement having population upto 1000 are categorised into 3 type of settlements in descending order according to their size of population taking into account the quality of ground water.
8.6 Presently, out of 26 rural settlements having population 2000 and above, 9 settlements have been covered by the water supply facility. In second category which includes 14 settlements with population ranging between 1999 to 1500, 3 rural settlements have been facilitated by water supply schemes while in the third category (with population from 1499 to 1000) out of 42 rural settlements 9 have been covered by such facility. Thus, out of total 82 rural settlements 21 settlements are covered with the required facility of water supply as reported upto June 1997. Taluka-wise details of uncovered settlements and their quality of water is given in table No.3.
8.7 For providing the water supply to uncovered rural settlements, 2 schemes are under implementation at the estimated cost of Rs.11.090 million during the current year i.e. 1997-98 leaving development gap of 59 uncovered villages, but according to criteria 19 additional settlements with brackish water will require water supply schemes on priority basis. Details of completed,on-going schemes and number of brackish water settlements (taluka wise) are given at table No.2 and 3. 8.8 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed water supply schemes (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.5.
8.9 Drainage system in the rural areas of Sindh under the prescribed criteria is provided for "A rural settlement with population 1000 & above preferably having water system". Presently out of total 82 rural settlements, 25 settlements have been covered by the drainage facility. As per first categorisation, out of 26 rural settlements having population 2000 and above, 14 settlements facilitated by the drainage facility. In second category, no settlements from 14 settlement have been covered with drainage and thirdly, out of 42 rural settlements 11 settlements are having the facility of drainage system. Taluka wise detail of completed drainage schemes are given in table No.4.
8.10 For providing the Rural Drainage facility to the uncovered rural settlements another one scheme is under implementation with the estimated cost of Rs.4.308 million during the current year (i.e.1997-98), leaving a development gap of 66 rural settlements. According to criteria 11 settlements with water supply schemes will require drainage facility on priority basis. The details of taluka wise completed, on-going schemes and uncovered settlements are given in table 2 & 4. 8.11 A separate statement giving the Taluka-wise position of completed drainage scheme (year wise) and development gaps is given in table No.6.

8.12 More than 86% population of rural Sindh resides in villages upto 1000 population. Rural Development Department, Govt. of Sindh has been charged with the responsibility of providing Water Supply and Sanitation facilities in these settlements. Presently, it executes two Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Projects funded by the World Bank and UNICEF respectively. Through these projects, potable water is provided by installing hand pumps while Sanitation facilities are provided by constructing household latrines, and hygiene Education in villages having population of upto one thousand souls.
8.12 In District Sukkur there are a number of 1403 villages with population upto 1000. Rural Development Department has so far provided 668 water supply Schemes through hand pumps in 204 villages covering 0.080 million population. This leaves the development gap of a large number of small settlements i.e. 1199 villages where this facility is yet to be provided. Taluka wise details are given at table No.7.
8.13 The Rural Development Department has also helped in forming effective Village Organisation to function collectively and carry forward the participatory development approach. The concept is that by using both local and external resources and working together, the development of the villages can take place. In sanitation, households contribute more than the government share. The Rural Development Department component of this project has adopted bold initiatives in Community Participation and Co-ordination with other institutions (government and non-government) to bring a range of services to project villages.
The project has following components:-
1. Community Development. 2. Health Development. 3. Water Supply. 4. Sanitation. 5. District Co-ordination Committees. 6. Training. 7. Institutional Strengthening. 8. Documentation.
8.14 Under the two projects aided by World Bank and UNICEF, village Organisations are formed. The hand pumps and sanitation schemes are operated and maintained by the communities.
8.15 In most of the urban areas the problem is more of inadequate and inefficient distribution rather than that of water supply availability. Attention should there fore be focused on a better distribution system alongwith an augmentation of suppers.
8.16 In case of sewerage and drainage, the situation is much worse and is aggravated by the expansion of water supply facilities. Provision of sewerage & drainage disposal facilities has therefore to match the programme of water supply.
8.17 Priority should be given to those areas where sweet ground water is not available at a reasonable depth and where water has to be fetched from distance.( Details are given in Table No.3) Similarly, Special consideration has to be given to areas where the rural population presently relies on surface water which is unfit for human consumption.
8.18 In areas where people have installed their own hand pump, priority should be given to sanitational disposal schemes. Piped water supply system is to be restricted to bigger village with a population ranging from 3000 to 5000. Hand pumps are being provided to smaller villages and initial delivery systems should be based on community stand-post and storage tanks.
8.19 Piped water-supply should be provided only at places where underground water is brackish, but here also the quality of material used and the workmanship must be improved. Frequent water leakages due to use of sub-standard pipes and defective implementation of schemes have created further problems through collection of water in the residential areas and damages of the buildings.
8.20 Water-supply through the implementation of water-supply schemes needs to be monitored regularly to ensure that the water is fit for human consumption. This is desirable specially because the water-supply schemes in Sindh do not provide for the filtration or chlorination process. Long-term effect of such water on health of the people needs to be studied.
8.21 Top priority be assigned to the sanitary disposal of sewage and waste-water which has collected in the form of stinking ponds in the vicinity of the towns and the larger rural settlements. The sewage so collected can neither be disposed off through land treatment (since it may cause soil sickness) nor it could be pumped into the flowing canals due to the fear of water pollution. The sewage ponds give rise to mosquito breeding and are likely to pollute the subsoil water which is the source of drinking water in this area. As such the top priority/attention should be given to solve this problem. The sewage could be treated in the oxidation ponds or in the digesting chambers. It would then be easy to dispose off the treated water into the flowing canals.
8.22 The Public Health Engineering Department (PHED)is responsible for planning, designing and construction of Water Supply Schemes in the province essentially in the larger villages having population of 1000 and above as per prescribed criteria. Sanitation/Drainage schemes are also provided by PHED in villages above 1000 persons where water supply schemes have been already provided. Details of such villages already covered/uncovered through drainage may be seen in table No.4.
8.23 Normally after completion of the schemes Public Health Engineering Department used to hand over the completed schemes to the local councils for operation and maintenance who under took maintenance task with great reluctance due to their unsound financial position, lack of technical know-how and doubts about the quality of construction work of completed schemes. As a result most of the completed schemes are poorly maintained by local councils and are either being partly run or closed down without any public utility.
8.24 Present Government has launched the Social Action Programme (SAP) in the Country which aims to improve the quality of life particularly in rural areas by providing basic amenities, such as, primary education, health care, safe drinking water and sanitation.
8.25 The Provincial Government has adopted a "unified policy" which imbibes the community to take operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Schemes on sustainable basis and as such has decided the following measures:-
(a) That all the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme will be dealt on Community basis.
(b) The Community will be motivated to form village development organisations (VDOS) which will closely associated with the implementation of the schemes at all stages and the completed schemes will be taken over by them for O/M and Management.
(c) In view of unsatisfactory financial conditions of most of the rural communities, it has been decided by the Present Government to provide cost of electricity and non routine maintenance, whereas "Community" will bear the cost of engaging operators/personnel and routine maintenance through recovery of user charges from the consumers.


Post a Comment

Subscribe to Post Comments [Atom]

<< Home