Thursday, March 31, 2005

Unemployment in Sindh and Pakistan Army

Unemployment in Sindh and Pakistan Army

From: Mansoor Hallaj

This is with reference to World Bank and IMF sentmandarins working in our midst i.e. Pakistan StateBank Governor Dr. Ishrat Hussain and Prime MinisterShaukat Aziz as both of them have been beating thedrum of Good Governance, Transparency, MonitoryDiscipline, Growth Rate and Trickled Down Theory sincelast five years as of now the Karachi Stock Exchangeis crashed, Inflation is again up, Foreign Debt is ona rise, Fuel Prices are rising on routine basis, GasPrices are on a constant rise on the orders of WorldBank, 45% of population are below poverty line,Electricity Tariffs raised 25 times since 12 Oct 1999,Wheat/Sugar/Lentils and other such commodities are outof reach of those who are poor {they all must die orcommit suicide}. Above all the National Unity can beseen only on National Day on the State Managed Floatsand Tableau presenting Folk Dances in Tradiotionaldresses otherwise it is no more there. But for Mr.Musharraf, Army and Shaukat Aziz, Pakistan is on thepath of prospertiy. No Sir, only Generals and ArmyOfficers are on the path of Prosperity.

INTRODUCTION:

As per State Bank of Pakistan second quarterly report2004-05 on economic performance released last week. The overall unemployment rate inthe province has increased from 5.2 per cent in 01-02to 5.97 per cent in 03-04. The rise in joblessnessrate is much more pronounced in rural areas where itgrew by 1.15 per cent to 4.38 per cent in 03-04 from3.23 per cent in 01-02. In urban areas, thecomparative unemployment increased by 0.47 per cent to7.56 per cent from 7.09 per cent. In sharp contrast,the national employment scene has somewhat improved by0.6 per cent as jobless rate dropped down from 8.3 percent in 2001-02 to 7.7 per cent in 02-03. Thisimprovement has mainly come from Punjab whereemployment opportunities increased by about 1.15 percent. A big majority of the new 2.9 million jobs werecreated in Punjab. Despite an increase of 1.8 millionin the overall national labour force, there wereenough job opportunities to absorb the additionallabour force and employ from the pool of carry-overs.There are reasons to believe that the labour continuesto migrate from Punjab and NWFP into Sindh. Thisprovincial migration aggravates employment situationin Sindh and is resulting in transfer of resources.Out of an estimated 40 million population, six percent or a huge army of two million are jobless. Theyare roaming in the cities and villages in search ofjobs. At least a quarter of this unemployed force-halfa million-is educated and many of them are graduates,post graduates, technicians, engineers andprofessionals trained in accounting and management.Sindh boasts of 49 per cent urbanization and 54 percent literacy in the urban areas.

Almost $6 billion (Rs 360 billion at the rate of Rs 60a dollar) industrial investment is said to have beenmade in Pakistan during last five years, as evident bythe increasing import of machinery and raw materialevery year. Investment flows have apparently notreached Sindh's industrial estates. The report quotesan official survey which reveals a drop of 2.5 percent in industrial employment from July 2001 to March2002 in the province. Industrial production growthduring this nine month period was only 0.3 per cent. Persisting drought, crippling tax structure imposedunder the influence of World Bank and the IMF,fluctuations in exchange value of rupee, breakdown ofinfra- structure facilities and growing lawlessnesswere blamed for the closure of industries. Located atthe extreme end of Indus Basin, Sindh suffers from ageographical disadvantage. It gets plentiful waterwhen there is no need and suffers water scarcity whencrops are being planted or are growing and need water.It has only one source of water and that is IndusRiver. Three barrages are now more than 40 years oldand are in a state of extreme disrepair. During theperiod 2000 to 2002 the share of Sindh's river waterwas cut down drastically in four seasons. In the year2003, heavy rains and floods devastated crops,livestock and property. Reduction in river water flowshas led to sea intrusion in Badin and Thatta whereover 1.2 million acres of farmland is now totallysubmerged under sea waters. A rough estimate putsSindh's agricultural losses in last four years at Rs42billion. While Sindh suffered heavy losses from a cutin river water share, and was forced to cut down itscultivated area, the cropped area in Punjab increasedsubstantially. This is the reason for a drop in ruralunemployment in Punjab but a rise in Sindh.

While an over centralised and insensitiveestablishment at Islamabad cannot be absolved of therut that has set in Sindh, the land-holding structurein the rural areas of the province and the quality ofpolitical leadership from both urban and rural areasare also equally to be blamed.

"Sindh has the highest incidence of absolute land lessness'' discloses the Annual Review Report for the year2004 by the Social Policy and Development CentreSPDC). It says that 62 per cent or nearly two millionrural households in rural Sindh are absolute landless. Hardly 26 per cent or about 700,000 ruralhouseholds have the share of land ownership which isthe lowest in Pakistan. Sindh has the highestpercentage of farm holdings of over 100 acres and suchfarms are 15 per cent of the farm area.

The SPDC report entitled 'Combating Poverty: Is GrowthSufficient' makes it clear that the concentration ofland holding in the hands of land owning elites leadsto control over other rural markets as well. Thishappens, the report explains "because of theinterlocking nature of transactions in the ruralmarkets for land, labour, agricultural inputs, credit,output and the commodity markets''. The monopolisticcontrol that such interlocking provides to the landedelite generally results in the capture of publicresources thus compounding poverty. Jehangir Tareen, afederal industries and productions minister who isalso a progressive farmer prepared a detailed reportfor the State Bank of Pakistan to point out how thebig landlords hijack the bank loans for farms. A vastmajority of small farmers depend on the big farmers togive them credit on 100 per cent and even higher rateof interest. In Sindh, the majority of the legislatorscome from the elite big farmers who own amongthemselves 15 per cent of the provincial agriculturalland but encroach upon big tracts of state farms. Thekutcha area between the two banks of river Indus istheir popular hunting ground. There is no cleardemarcation of farms in kutcha area. This isconsidered to be the most fertile area. All biglandlords have their illegal farms in this area andthey construct their comfort homes. These also serveas sanctuaries for the criminals and a prison forthose who are abducted for ransom. As far back as 1992 and 1993, the late Chief of StaffGeneral Asif Janjua made an attempt to demarcate thekutcha area with plans to construct police stations,schools, dispensaries and health units. But the bigfeudals came out ferociously against such an attemptand the plans were dropped. Political leadership fromelite farmer families remain oblivious of the needs ofthe people. They are in the government and are in theopposition. Their main interest is to get a share inthe public sector development funds. Pakistan Peoples Party can rightly claim to have takena big initiative in introducing third generation ofland reforms and introducing tax on agriculturalincome. Late Zulfikar Ali Bhutto announced landreforms and imposition of tax on agricultural incomein 1977. It was made part of 1977 budget. But beforethe land reforms could be implemented, General ZiaulHaq took over and the first act he did was to repealland reforms and tax on agriculture without making anyformal announcement. He won over the loyalty of allbig feudals. The same feudals and their children areagain with the government. If they are in theopposition they have the same attitude. The PPPleaders now feel shy of discussing the land reforms.With such a stranglehold of the feudals in theprovince, social justice, poverty alleviation and jobsfor all remains an illusion. {1}

CORPORATE INTEREST.

With the formation of the all-powerful NationalSecurity Council, Musharraf has enshrined in theconstitution a permanent political role for themilitary and it is crucial for him to have thoseofficers by his side who will fully subscribe to hisviews and policies. "Musharraf has ensured that he andmilitary will continue to call the shots and maintainfirm control on the levers of power. "Musharraf'sstrategy is to maintain a façade of democracy and toretain control for himself and for the army,”. Fiveyears of Musharraf's rule has enabled the military tospread out so widely in civilian institutions of stateand society, that its presence is now firmlyestablished in all walks of life. "The military underGeneral Musharraf has undergone a majortransformation, particularly in the outlook of the topcommanders. They are no longer satisfied with theprotection and advancement of their professional andcorporate interests from the sidelines," says HasanAskari Rizvi, a leading defence and security analyst.The presence of the military is invasive. It hasextended its role in the public and private sectors,industry, business, agriculture, education andcommunication. Like other states where the militaryhas experienced long periods of military rule, inPakistan too the military has become the ladder forlucrative jobs. Since coming to power, the Musharrafgovernment has placed some 1200 active and retiredofficers in various ministries and state corporations.Retired generals are now serving as vice chancellorsof the Punjab and Peshawar universities. The situationhas not changed after the installation of a civiliangovernment, and the private sector is encouraged toaccommodate army personnel. Most analysts agree thatassigning military personnel into lucrative civilianjobs, coupled with the distribution of the rewards ofpower, has far reaching political consequences andcarries a long term impact on the military'sprofessionalism. "The military has expanded itsnon-professional interest to such an extent that ithas developed stakes in most areas of policy makingand management," says Rizvi.Military rule has also helped consolidate thesocio-economic conditions of officers through theperks that come with power. The military controls fivefoundations that are among Pakistan's largest businessgroups. They run banks, insurance companies and majorindustries such as fertiliser and cement. They evenown agricultural farms, dairies and gas stations. Themilitary's burgeoning industrial and business empireis indicative of its growing stake in the economy. Several military welfare organisations like, FaujiFoundation, the Army Welfare Trust and Shaheen andBahria Foundations, have become large industrial andbusiness conglomerates. They are involved in variedbusiness and commercial activities that includebanking, running universities and schools in theprivate sector, real estate development and trading.Fauji Foundation, the largest, is now trying toacquire Pakistan State Oil ( PSO) and Ufone. Theprivatisation of PSO, that controls more than 70 percent of the oil distribution business in the country,has been delayed to allow the organisation to searchfor a partner. The acquisition of these two companieswith assets of more than one billion dollars may turnFauji Foundation into Pakistan's biggest industrialconglomerate. The military's land grabbing for theestablishment of Defence Societies in Pakistan's maincities has been scandalous. In Lahore alone themilitary has acquired more than 100 miles of land ,extending from the new phase six, starting from Burkiroad to the BRB canal and across. According to aleading Pakistani economist, the value of this landalone is estimated at billions of dollars. This figureis multiplied manifold if land controlled by themilitary in other cities like Karachi is included.According to one estimate, around 35 per cent ofKarachi's prime land comes under the cantonment board.The military says they acquire the land at marketprices, but the evidence contradicts the claim. " Itis a institutionalised corruption," says Lt General(retd) Talat Masood. Musharraf's decision to hold onto his post and perpetuate the military's primacy isbound to strengthen the military's growing economicinterests. With the political and economic stakes sohigh, the military is unlikely to relinquish theirprivileged position even after the restoration ofcivilian and constitutional rule. The more themilitary entrenches itself in non-professional fields,the less freedom political governments will be allowedin formulating domestic and foreign policies. {2}

WHAT IS ‘NATIONAL SECURITY OR INTEREST’?

Public schools here are little more than warehouses,grim concrete shells lacking libraries, sportsfacilities, sometimes even teachers. Classes have asmany as 60 students. But the children of Pakistanimilitary officers almost certainly are not among them.For them, there is Army Public School O Levels. Gearedtoward preparation for the competitive O Level examsrequired by British universities, the handsome schoolis an educational showpiece whose computer, physicsand biology labs would not seem out of place in anAmerican suburb. Teachers make three times as muchmoney as their public school counterparts. The officerclass in Pakistan has always had a strong sense ofentitlement stemming from its dominant role indefending the country and in running it, directly orfrom behind the scenes, for most of Pakistan's 55-yearhistory. As the military's accumulation of lavish perks, andits growing encroachment on civilian institutions andthe economy, cause many Pakistanis to ask whetheruniformed leaders -- like the corrupt politicians theyreplaced -- are confusing the national interest withtheir own. Why else, they wonder, would officers'children at the seven-year-old army school enjoybasketball courts, fields for cricket and soccer, evena petting zoo stocked with ducks and deer. "The armyconsiders itself a privileged class," Khayyam Durrani,a retired officer who is principal of the school, saidwith a smile. "The fact is that the actual rulers inPakistani society are the army people, so they wanttheir children to go to a privileged institution." Critics go a step further, accusing the military ofdeliberately stoking tensions with India, particularlyover Kashmir, to justify its hold on resources andpower. "Peace would be a disaster for the military,"said Pervez Hoodbhoy, an anti-nuclear activist andMIT-trained physicist who teaches at Quaid-i-AzamUniversity in Islamabad. There is no denying themilitary's dominant role in Pakistan. The militaryowns the best farmland and several of the largestindustrial conglomerates. Retired or active-dutymilitary officers run the ports, postal service,electric utilities, sports federations,telecommunications authority, culture ministry,mineral development agency, anti-drug police,railroads, civil aviation authority, national shippingcompany and Pakistan's biggest steel mill. They holdtop administrative posts at the best universities.Many ambassadors are retired officers. While Musharrafhas vowed to restore "real democracy," he also hastried to institutionalize the army's role in politicswith recent constitutional amendments that he says donot need parliamentary approval. One of them creates anew National Security Council to oversee parliament.The council, chaired by Musharraf, will include themilitary service chiefs as well as the chief ministersof Pakistan's four provinces. Another amendment givesMusharraf the power to dissolve the assembly.

The military's primacy is reflected in the nationalbudget, about 22 percent of which goes for defense,compared with 16 percent in the United States and 15percent in India, according to the CIA World Factbook.The high proportion of defense spending has come atthe expense of social programs in this impoverishednation of 147 million, which spends 42 percent lessper capita on health care than other countries at thesame income level, according to the World Bank.Whatever the hazards faced by Pakistani officers, theyalso inhabit a kind of parallel universe thatinsulates them from the hardships endured by otherPakistanis. Many live with their families inmanicured, colonial-era "cantonments" with goodschools, well-maintained roads and reliable power andwater supplies. One of the fanciest clubs in Karachiis the Defense Housing Authority County and Golf Club,a sparkling new facility with lush fairways, atwo-story driving range and a gracious stone clubhouseoverlooking an inlet of the Arabian Sea. Active-dutymilitary personnel can join the club for an initiationfee of $16, compared with $9,166 for civilians,according to the club's fee schedule. Under an arcanepoint-based system that dates to the British Raj, themilitary also rewards its senior officers by allowingthem to purchase agricultural and urban land from thearmy's vast inventory of real estate at prices farbelow market value. A number of these properties aregrouped into "defense societies" in tony suburbs ofKarachi and other major cities. The societies areadministered by the Defense Housing Authority, whichensures the provision of municipal services. Officerswho acquire such land often develop it as rentalproperty or sell it for hefty profits. One of Pakistan's most coveted addresses, for example,is the blandly named Army Housing Scheme II, which isbuilt on the site of an old antiaircraft battery inthe upscale Karachi suburb of Clifton. A gatedcommunity protected by paramilitary troops, thedevelopment consists of spacious, Mediterranean-stylevillas grouped around a playground and an elaboratelylandscaped Japanese-style garden. Nearby are clothingboutiques, jewelry stores, restaurants and a yogastudio. Property owners in the neighborhood includeseveral army corps commanders, Interior MinisterMoeenuddin Haider, a retired general and Musharraf,who rents his large stone house to a German businessexecutive and his wife for $1,416 per month, accordingto a local real estate agent. Musharraf owns sevenpieces of property in all, including six residentialplots and a piece of agricultural land, according tothe asset list he disclosed shortly after seizingpower.

Individual perks aside, the military presides over anetwork of businesses and industry that ensures it adominant role in the economy. In the 1980s, forexample, the military government of Gen. Mohammed Ziaul-Haq set up the National Logistics Cell, whichferried supplies to Islamic rebels fighting to oustSoviet forces from Afghanistan. The organization isnow the largest freight company in Pakistan, grabbingbusiness from railroads and private trucking firms,according to Hasan Askari Rizvi, an academic andauthor who has written widely on the Pakistanimilitary. In a similar vein, the military afterindependence established several charitablefoundations to look after the welfare of retirees.They have since grown into huge business empires. Thearmy's Fauji Foundation, for example, is Pakistan'slargest industrial conglomerate with assets of $133million in 1996, including sugar and cereal mills,cement plants, fertilizer factories and a powerproject, according to Rizvi. Installing men in uniform in civilian businesses andinstitutions did not begin with Musharraf. In 1980,Zia established a 10 percent quota for militarypersonnel in civilian government jobs. But Musharraf,by all accounts, has taken the process further thanhis uniformed predecessors, dispatching military"monitoring teams" to key civilian agencies andreplacing top officials with senior officers. Hecontends that corrupt and incompetent management bycivilians left him little choice. Durrani, theprincipal of Karachi's army school, acknowledged thathe is troubled by the military's gradual encroachmenton civilian institutions. At the same time, however,he has big plans for the school, including a newauditorium and perhaps even a swimming pool. "I justhave to convince the general," he said, referring tothe school's chairman. "If the general wants toarrange for funds, he can." {3}

JOBLESS CIVILIANS ‘MUST’ COMMIT MASS SUICIDE!

The armed forces personnel heading the departmentsunder the administrative control of the CabinetDivision exceed the 10 per cent quota of the defencepersonnel in the civil services , record placed beforethe National Assembly recently revealed. The record,placed before the house in response to a question byMNA Dr Abul Khair Muhammad Zubair, showed that sevenof the 15 departments and organizations under theadministrative control of the cabinet division wereheaded by retired generals and air marshals, some ofthem holding only graduation or honorary mastersdegrees. In contrast to the qualifications held by theretired armed forces officials, the educationalqualifications of the civilians were either fromabroad or they had specialisation in the relevantfield. However, the only exception in civilianappointments was a BA degree holder, MuhammadRiazuddin, appointed as head of the stationary andforms Karachi.

Following are the names of the officials heading thedepartments under the administrative control of thecabinet division: Chairman of Federal Land Commission Maj-Gen (retired)Inayatullah Khan Niazi (MSc), Chairman of NationalElectric Power Regulatory Authority, Lt-Gen (retired)Saeeduz Zaman (MSc Hons), Chairman of Alternate EnergyDevelopment Board Air Marshal (retired) Shahid Hamid(BSc Engineering), Executive Director of FrequencyAllocation Board Brig Iftikhar Ali (MSc ElectricalEngineering), Chairman of National AccountabilityBureau Lt-Gen Munir Hafeez (MSc War Studies),Additional Director-General of Department ofCommunications Security Brig Riaz Arshad (MSc WarStudies), Chairman of Pakistan TelecommunicationAuthority Maj-Gen (retired) Shahzada Alam Malik (BETelecom and MSc War Studies).

Just compare the degree civilians hold: Controller of Stationary and Forms Muhammad Riazuddin(BA), Chairman of Sheikh Zayed Hospital Prof AnwarKhan (MMBS, FACP, FACG etc), Director-General ofNational Archives Raja Muhammad Ikramul Haq (Msc, MPAfrom US); Chairman of National Language Authority ProfFateh Muhammad Malik (MA Urdu gold medalist), ManagingDirector of Printing Corporation of Pakistan NawazAhmed Sheikh (MA Economics, MA Development andAdministration), Chairman of National Commission forHuman Development Dr Nasim Ashraf (MBBS), Chairman ofOil and Gas Regulatory Authority Muhammad Munir (MScPetroleum Geology), Chairman of Abandoned PropertiesOrganisation Azam Rathore (MA, LLB, MDS from Holland).

There can be numerous reasons why the Pakistan ArmyGenerals would not transfer power to the electedrepresentatives of the people of Pakistan. But onevery obvious reason is the civilian positions ofauthority now under their clutches. Thousands of others in lesser positions, who have beeninducted under a quota system, have not yet beencounted. But their presence makes it clear what stakesthe army has developed in controlling the politicalsystem of the country. The corporate face of the armyalso enjoys the full facilities and backing of thearmy establishment, whether their businesses run intoprofits or losses.

The key positions identified aregiven under:

General Pervez Musharraf (President, Chief executive,Defence Minister, Army Chief and Chairman of NationalSecurity Council);(The COAS slot has been includedhere just to show the hats Gen. Musharraf wears. Thisjob will naturally remain with the Army).

Major General (Retd) Muhammad Anwar (President of AzadKashmir);

Lt Gen (Retd) Khalid Maqbool (Governor Punjab);

Commander Khalil (Governor NWFP);Lt General (Retd) Javed Ashraf Qazi (Federal EducationMinister);

Col (Retd) S.K. Tressler (Federal Minorities & CultureMinister);

Lt Gen. Hamid Javed (Chief Executive’s Chief ofStaff);
Lt General Muneer Hafeez (Chief of NAB);
Major General Usman Shah (Deputy Chief of NAB);
Major General Shujaat Zameer (Deputy Chief of NAB);
Major General Abdul Jabbar Bhatti (Chief, RegionalAccountability Bureau, RAB,Punjab);
Air Vice Marshal Zakaullah (Chief of RAB NWFP);Major General Tariq Bashir (Chief of RAB Sindh);Major General Owais Mushtaq (Chief of RABBalochistan);Lt General (Retd) Hamid Nawaz (Secretary Defence);Air Marshal (Retd) Zahid Anees (Secretary DefenceProduction);Lt General (Retd) Saeedul Zafar (Secretary Railways);Major General (Retd) Fazal Ghafoor (Ambassador toNorth Korea);Brigadier (Retd) Abdul Majeed Khan (Ambassador toTajikistan);Major General (Retd) Salimullah (Ambassador to UAE);Major General (Retd) Muhammad Hassan Aqeel (Ambassadorto Thailand);Lt General (Retd) Asad Durrani (Ambassador to SaudiArabia);Vice Admiral (Retd) Shamoon Aslam Khan (Ambassador toUkraine);Air Marshal (Retd) Najeeb Akhtar (Ambassador toBrazil);Major General Syed Mustafa Anwar Hussain (Ambassadorto Indonesia);Lt General (Retd) Muhammad Shafeeq (Ambassador toBahrain);Major General (Retd) Agha Masood Hassan (DG of PostalServices);Major General Farrukh Javed (Chairman National HighwayAuthority);Rear Admiral Ahmad Hayat (Chairman Karachi PortTrust);Rear Admiral Sikandar Viqar Naqvi (Chairman Port QasimAuthority);Vice Admiral Tauqir Hussain Naqvi (Chairman NationalShipping Corporation);Major General (Retd) Muhammad Hassan (Chief ofNational Fertilizer Corporation);A Lt. General (Chairman Pakistan Steel Mills);Lt Colonel (Retd) Akbar Hussain (Export ProcessingZone Authority);Major General Shehzad Alam Malik (Chairman PakistanTelecommunications Authority);Air Vice Marshal Azhar Masood (Chairman NationalTelecommunications Authority);Brigadier (Retd) Muhammad Saleem (Chairman NADRA);Brigadier Mirza Babar Aziz (DG NADRA);Brigadier (Retd) Muhammad Anwar Khan (DG NADRA NWFP);Major General Raza Hussain (Chairman SUPARCO);Major General Sabihuddin Bokhari (Surveyor General ofPakistan);Brigadier Javed Iqbal Cheema (DG National CrisisManagement Cell);Air Marshal (Retd) Shafeeq Haider (Chairman FederalPublic Service Commission);Lt General Arshad Hussain (Member Federal PublicService Commission);Lt General (Retd) Jehangir Nasrullah (Chairman PunjabPublic Service Commission);Major General (Retd) Arshad Chaudhry (Member PunjabPublic Service Commission);Major General (Retd) Arshadullah Tarar (Member PunjabPublic Service Commission);Air Vice Marshal (Retd) Aliuddin (DG Civil AviationAuthority);Air Vice Marshal (Retd) Arshad Saleem (Deputy DG CivilAviation Authority);Major General Zafar Abbas (DG Anti-Narcotics Force);Major General Syed Haider Javed (DG National LogisticsCell);Major General (Retd) Inayatullah Khan Niazi (DGAuqaf);Major General Pervez Akmal (MD OGDC);Brigadier (Retd) Rizvan Ashraf (General Manager OGDC);Brigadier (Retd) Ishtiaq Ali Khan (MD Pakistan MineralDevelopment Authority);Major General (Retd) Hamid Hassan Butt (ChairmanPakistan Railways);Lt General (Retd) Syed Shujaat Ali Khan (RectorEngineering University Lahore);Lt General (Retd) Arshad Mehmood (Vice ChancellorPunjab University);Air Vice Marshal (Retd) Sardar Khan (Vice ChancellorEngineering University Peshawar);Captain (Retd) U.A.G. Isani (Vice Chancellor IslamabadUniversity);Lt General (Retd) Sardar Ali (DG National Institute ofPublic Administration);Brigadier (Retd) Maqsoodul Hassan (DG Directorate ofEducation);Brigadier Muhammad Ejaz (Home Secretary Punjab);Brigadier Abdur Rehman (Director Health NWFP);Brigadier Shadab (Secretary C&W Punjab)Brigadier Anees (Chairman Punjab PrivatisationCommission);Colonel (Retd) Shahid Qureshi (DIG SindhTelecommunications);Colonel (Retd) Ghulam Hussain (Secretary S&GAD NWFP);Brigadier Mukhtar (Home Secretary, Sindh);Brigadier Zaheer Qadri (DG, KDA, Sindh and notSecretary C&W NWFP);Brigadier (Retd) Akhtar (Secretary to Governor Sindh);Major General (Retd) Imtiaz (Chairman PakistanAthletics Federation);Brigadier Saulat Abbas (DG Pakistan Sports Board).Brig. Khalid Javed, DG Projects Directorate, NADRA,IslamabadCol Talmeez Abbas, DG Dataware Housing, NADRA,IslamabadMaj Tahir M. Alvi DDG, Project Directorate, NADRA,IslambadBrig Safdar Husain Awan is the Secy (C&W) NWFP Brig Qadri is DG KDA;Brig Mohtarim is Home Secretary SindhMajor General (Retd) Hashmi, Registrar, PakistanEngineering Council; Major General (Retd) Anis Bajwa, Chairman PTDC;Major Genera (Retd) Asif Riaz Bokhari, NRB;Brig Muhammad Toseef Uz Zaman Khan, Civil AviationAuthority;Brig Saeed Ahmed Malik, WAPDA Head Qtrs Lahore;Brig Muhammad Iqbal, WAPDA HQ Lahore;Brig Mushtaq Ahmed, WAPDA HQ, Lahore;Brig Khalid Sohail Cheema, DG Pak PWD;Brig Shamshad Khan, GM NWFP NHA;Brig (Retd) Zareen Khan, Project Incharge Ghazi BrothaWAPDA;Brig (Retd) Mukhtar Ahmed Tariq, GM Admin OGDC;Brig (Retd) Muhammad Hamayoun Khan, GM ProcurementOGDC;Brig (Retd) Sardar Javed Ashraf, MD KW&SB;Brig (Retd) Nisar, IG Prisons (Sindh);Brig (Retd) Zafar Ahmed Malik, Karachi Building &Control Authority;Brig (Retd) Aftab Ahmed, DG PHA;Brig (Retd) Dilbar Husain Naqvi, MD NationalConstruction Company;Colonel Rauf, IG Prisons, NWFP;Colonel Asif Jamal, MD, Multan Development Authority;Colonel (Retd) Najam ul Hasan Malik, TMO Rawalpindi;Colonel (Retd) Hafiz Abdur Rehman Malik, MD WASA,Rawalpindi;Colonel (Retd) Kanwar Muhammad Sherbaz Khan, GM CS&EOGDC;Lt Col Muhammad Azim, GM NHA;LT Col Naqeeb Amjad Malik, Manager CS&E OGDC;Lt Col (Retd) Aziz ul Haque Mirza, Member (Operations)NHA;Lt Col (Retd) Hafeezullah Awan, MD WASA Quetta.Major General (Retd) Shujaat Ali Khan, Ambassador toMorocco;Major General (Retd) Badruddin, Ambassador to Brunei;Vice Admiral(Retd) Khalid Mir, Ambassador to Lebanon;Brig (Retd) Muhammad Nisar, Ambassador to Argentina;Brig. Sikandar Ali, Director, Anti Narctics Force;Brig (R) Saeed Ahmad Rafi, Director General, Ministryof Foreign Affairs (He was inducted by Gen Musharrafinto Foreign Service as incharge of overseas pollingfor Presidential Referendum in April); Brig (R) Mian Khalid Habib, Chief of Protocol, M/oforeign Affirs;Brig Tipu Sultan, Director General, Ministry ofForeign Affairs;Group Capt (R) Khalid Aziz Babar, Director General,M/o Foreign Affairs; Naval Lt (R) Ghalib Iqbal, Consul General, Toronto(son-in-law of former Air Chief Anwar Shamim) {AnwerShamim is a Quadiyani and had served General Zia{Ameer ul Momineen as per Jamat-e-Islami}, AnwerShamim has huge ranches in California, USA, which heand his brother in Law Khursheed Anwer Mirza madethrough trafficking Narcotics during so-called AfghanJihad {the Time Weekly that carried the this news wasbanned in Pakistan in 80s}.Naval Lt (R) Qasim Raza Mutaqqi, Counsellor, Rome;Col (R) Salik Nawaz, Deputy Chief of Protocol, M/oForeign Affairs; Capt (R) Masood Akhtar, Deputy Chief of Protocol, M/oForeign Affairs; Capt (R) Shaukat Muqaddam, Counsellor, Dublin;Capt (R) Zaighamuddin Azam Khan, Counsellor, Berlin;Capt (R) Sohail Ittehad Hussain, Director General,M/oForeign Affairs; Capt (R) Khalid Durrani, Director, M/o ForeignAffairs. General ® Jahangeer Karamat, Ambassador of Pakistan inUSA.Brigadier ® Ejas Shah, Director General IntelligenceBureau.

The above list was of 2002. In 2003, as many as 104serving and retired Lieutenant Generals, MajorGenerals or equivalent ranks from other services areamong the 1,027 military officers inducted on civilianposts in different ministries, divisions and Pakistanimissions abroad after Oct 12, 1999 military takeover.The number of army Brigadiers or their equivalentranks from the Navy and Air Force is even higher at160, according to an annexure placed before the Senatelibrary.

There have been 14 ambassadors and a high commissionerfrom the military ranks during this period. Of these 1,027 military officers inducted on civilianposts, 27 military officers have been given the prizedgrade of 22 while 62 officers have been adjusted ingrade 21. A whopping figure of 150 officers occupycivilian positions in Grade 20. There are 276 officersbetween grade 20 and 22 alone. The nature of theirjobs varies from deputation, secondment, re-employmentto contract basis. These military officers occupycivilian posts in a situation where, according toIncharge Cabinet Division Raza Hiraj, there are 700'unabsorbed' surplus civilian employees. There are 33officers on special duty (OSD) just in grades between19 and 21. The range of fields where military officers areworking on civilian posts encompasses every sector ofhuman endeavour including communications, education,diplomacy, water and electricity management,information, post office, jails, local bodies, thinktanks, industrial production, shipping, minorityaffairs, population welfare, health, agriculture,railways, highways, housing, labour and manpower,social and women development, law and justice andsub-sectors of sports from cricket to hockey. A close look at the figures shows that these militarypersonnel occupy 13 posts in the cabinet division, 5posts in the commerce ministry, 98 in communicationsministry, 113 in the defence division, 52 in thedefence production division, 9 in the educationministry, 16 in the establishment division, 24 in theministry of foreign affairs, 6 in the ministry offood, agriculture and livestock. There are 88 militaryofficers working in the ministry of interior, 2 in thehealth ministry, 6 in the housing and works ministry,29 in the industries and production ministry, 3 in theinformation and broadcasting ministry, 58 in theministry of Information Technology, 25 in the Kashmiraffairs and northern affairs ministry, five in thelabour and manpower division, 17 in the ministry ofminorities affairs, 39 in the ministry of petroleumand natural resources, just one each in the ministryof population welfare, the planning and developmentdivision and the ministry of religious affairs. Thereare two military officials working in the revenuedivision (CBR), 21 in the ministry of science andtechnology, 72 in the ministry of railways/railwayboard, 37 in the ministry of water and power, 5 in theministry of women development, 6 in the WafaqiMohtasib. There are another 37 officers who have beeninducted under the military's 10 per cent quota incivilian posts over and above these appointments. In the Foreign Affairs 13 Lieutenants and MajorGenerals were appointed as ambassadors in differentcountries, while one Brigadier and a Major also gotambassadorial positions. Lt-Gen (retd) Asad Durraniwas appointed as ambassador in Riyadh (contractexpired on October 2002). Vice-Admiral (retd) ShamoonAlam Khan was appointed as ambassador in Kyiv (up toAugust 28, 2003), Vice-Admiral (retd) Khalid M Mir wasappointed ambassador in Beirut (up to July 2003),Lt-Gen (retd) Nasim Rana as ambassador in Kuala Lumpur(up to July 2003), Air Marshal (retd) Muhammad FarooqQari as ambassador in Tripoli, Lt-Gen (retd) AghaJehangir Ali Khan as ambassador in Mexico, Maj-Gen(retd) Shujaat Ali Khan as ambassador in Rabat (up toSeptember 2003), Maj-Gen (retd) Fazal Ghafoor asambassador in Tashkent (contract expired on April2002), Maj-Gen (retd) Salim Ullah as ambassador in AbuDhabi (up to June 2003), Lt-Gen (retd) MohammadShafique as ambassador in Bahrain (contract expired onOctober 2002), Maj-Gen (retd) Muhammad Hassan Aqeel asambassador in Thailand (up to June 2003), Maj Gen(retd) Syed Mustafa Anwar Hussain as ambassador inIndonesia (up to August 2003) and Maj-Gen (retd)Sultan Habib as ambassador in DPR Korea (up to October2003). Brigadier Abdul Majid Khan was appointed as ambassadorin Dushambe (contract expired on June 2002), whileMajor Badruddin was posted as high commissioner toBender Seri Begawen. In the cabinet division, Maj-GenKhalid Bashir was appointed as Member (Tech) PakistanTelecommunication Authority (PTA) (up to November2001), Maj-Gen Raza Hussain as chairman SUPARCO andMaj-Gen Shahzada Alam Malik as Chairman PTA. Theseinductions were made on regular basis. Similarly, inthe ministry of communications, Maj-Gen Tariq Javedwas inducted as National Highway Authority chairman onNovember 11, 2000 but was later repatriated. In hisplace Maj Gen Furrakh Javed was appointed as NHA chiefon November 5, 2001 on a secondment basis. He alreadyhad served as deputy director general (Dev) in theCivil Aviation Authority (CAA). Likewise, Maj-Gen(retd) Agha Masood Hasan was appointed as DirectorGeneral Pakistan Post Office on a contract basis,Vice-Admiral Taj Muhammad Khattak was appointed asChairman Port Qasim Authority (PQA) on secondment,Rear Admiral Muhammad Asad Qureshi was appointed asDirector General PQA, Vice Admiral (retd) S Tauquir HNaqvi as Chairman Pakistan National ShippingCorporation (PNSC) on contract, Vice Admiral (retd) SAbaid Ullah Khan as chairman (PNSC) (contractterminated on October, 2000), Rear Admiral Bakhat AliJumani was appointed as Executive Director (ShipManagement PNSC), Rear Admiral (retd) Sarfraz Khan wasappointed as Chairman Gwadar Port Authority (GPA),Rear Admiral Muhammad Nashat Raffi as General ManagerKarachi Port Trust (KPT), Vice Admiral Ahmed Hayat was appointed on a contractbasis as Chairman Karachi Port Trust (KPT), but priorto him Vice Admiral (retd) Khalid Mohammad Mir wasserving as chairman. Maj Gen (retd) Mohsin AhmedVahidy was appointed as Executive Directive PNSCKarachi on a contract basis but he is not serving now,while Rear Admiral Sikandar Viqar Naqvi was appointedchairman PQA (not serving). Similarly, in the ministryof defence, Lt-Gen (retd) Hamid Nawaz Khan wasre-employed on a contract basis as secretary ministryof defence but earlier Lt-Gen (retd) Nasim Rana wasserving in this capacity whose contract was terminatedon July 8, 2001. Rear Admiral Irfan Ahmad wasappointed as Additional Secretary (contractterminated), then Maj-Gen Muhammad Ashraf Chaudhry wasmade Additional Secretary, defence ministry, onsecondment basis. Maj-Gen Javed Iqbal was appointed as Director GeneralMilitary Land and Cantonments (ML&C) on secondment buthe was later retired. Later, Maj Gen Muhammad Jawedwas appointed as DG ML&C on secondment. Maj-GenMahboobul Muzaffar and Maj-Gen Sabihuddin Bokhari wereappointed as Surveyor General of Pakistan. After theirretirement, Maj-Gen Tariq Javed was appointed in theirplace on secondment basis. Rear Admiral Arshad MunirAhmed was appointed Ex-Managing Director KarachiShipyard (contract expired), Air Vice Marshal S JavedRaza as Director Pre Engineering PIA, AVM (retd) NiazHussain Director (Engineering) PIA and AVM ArshadRashid Sethi as Deputy Director General, CAA (notworking). In the Defence Production Division, Air Marshal (retd)Zahid Anis was appointed as secretary D P Division.Earlier Lt-Gen (retd) Lehrasab was working in hisplace. Similarly, Maj-Gen Ali Baz was appointed asAdditional Secretary D P Division. Earlier, Maj-GenRehmat Khan was serving as Additional Secretary D PDivision. Maj-Gen M Salimuddin was re-employed afterhis retirement from the army as Chief Scientists andScientific Adviser DESTO in place of Maj-Gen AkbarSaeed Awan, while Maj-Gen Syed Ali Hamid was appointedas Director General DEPO on secondment basis while AVMAurangzeb Khan was appointed Chairman PakistanAeronautical Complex board, Kamra. In the Establishment Division, Maj-Gen (retd)Rahmatullah was appointed as Managing Director FederalEmployees Benevolent Fund and Group Insurance.Earlier, Maj-Gen (retd) Inayatullah Khan Niazi wasworking in his place. Air Marshal (retd) ShafiqueHaider was appointed as Chairman Federal PublicService Commission (FPSC) while Lt-Gen (retd) ArshadHussain was appointed Member, FPSC. Maj-Gen (retd) Sikander Shami was appointed asDirector General of Head of Institute of NIPA, Lahore,while Lt-Gen (retd) Sardar Ali as Director NIPA,Lahore, both on a contract basis. Maj-Gen MuhammadIqbal Khan was appointed as Managing Director PASSCOon contract in the ministry of food, agriculture andlivestock, Maj-Gen Ahsan Ahmad as Director Generalhealth on secondment but was replaced by Maj-Gen(retd) Muhammad Aslam also on secondment/contract inthe health ministry. In the interior ministry Maj-Gen (retd) Zahid Ehsanwas appointed as Chairman Nadra (posted out) while inthe ministry of industries and production Maj-Gen(retd) M Mohsin was appointed as chairman NFC(national finance commission) on contract. AVM AzharMaud was appointed National TelecommunicationCorporation (NTC) chairman. In the ministry of information and broadcastingMaj-Gen (retd) Jamshed Ayaz Khan was appointed aspresident Institute of Regional Studies, Islamabad, oncontract. In the minorities, culture, sports, Maj-Gen(retd) Inayat Ullah Khan Niazi was appointed ChairmanETPB (contract expired), while Maj-Gen Anis AhmadBajwa was appointed as Managing Director PTDCIslamabad on contract. He had already served as DeputyChief of Staff to Chief Executive in the PrimeMinister's secretariat. Lt-Gen Hamid Javed wasappointed as Chief of Staff to the President in thepresident's secretariat. Similarly in the Prime Minister's secretariat Lt-GenGhulam Ahmad was appointed as chief of staff to ChiefExecutive in place of Lt-Gen Hamid Javed. Maj-GenAbdul Jabbar Bhatti, Maj-Gen Shafaatullah Shah andMaj-Gen Muhammad Yousaf were also appointed as deputychief of staff to chief executive. Maj-Gen HaroonSikandar Pasha was appointed as Director ChiefExecutive's secretariat. Maj-Gen Nadeem Taj had alsoserved as Military Secretary (MS) to Chief Executive(posted as MS to the president from January 2002).Lt-Gen Khalid Maqbool (now Governor Punjab) and Lt-GenSyed Muhammad Amjad were appointed as ChairmanNational Accountability Bureau (NAB), while Maj-GenAbdul Jabbar Bhatti, Maj-Gen Ijaz Ahmed Bakhshi andMaj-Gen Ovais Mushtaq Qureshi, AVM (retd) M SaleemudDin, Maj-Gen Muhammad Sabir, Maj-Gen Nazakat Ali Khan,Maj-Gen Shujaat Zamir Dar, Maj-Gen Syed Usman Shah andMaj-Gen Tariq Bashir, Rear Admiral Ihsanul Haq, RealAdmiral Ubaid Sadiq, AVM Masood Akhtar, AVM ZakaullahKhan and AVM (retd) Khuda Dad were subsequentlyappointed as Director General, NAB Maj-Gen (retd) SyedAsif Riaz Bokhari was appointed as Member, NRB on acontract basis. Maj-Gen Parvez Akmal was appointed as ManagingDirector Oil and Gas Development Company (OGDC) (notworking) while Maj-Gen (retd) Syed Usman Shah wasappointed as Director General Intelligence andInvestigation. In the railways ministry Lt-Gen (retd) Javaid AshrafQazi was appointed as secretary/chairman PakistanRailways. After his contract was terminated Lt-Gen(retd) Saeeduz Zafar replaced him. On termination ofhis contract, Maj-Gen (retd) Hamid Hassan Butt wasappointed as General Manager M&S PR but his contracttoo was terminated. Lt-Gen (retd) Zulfiqar Ali Khanwas appointed as Wapda Chairman on secondment/contractwhile Maj-Gen (retd) M Aslam Zuberi was appointedAdviser in the Wafaqi Mohtasib secretariat (contractexpired). Those who were appointed in the attacheddepartments include Air Marshal (retd) Sharbat AChangazi who was appointed as Director State LifeInsurance Corporation of Pakistan and Rear Admiral(retd) Ejaz Husain appointed as General ManagerSpecial Project, Pakistan State Oil Company Ltd. {4}QUESTIONABLE EXTENSION:THE news that Lt-Gen Munir Hafeez has been given ayear’s extension in the Army to let him complete hisfour-year tenure as NAB Chairman does not make sensewhen in the same breath the ruling leadershipproclaims that true democracy has been ushered in. Ifit was not considered appropriate to give him anassignment in the armed forces, he should have beenretired and the Accountability Bureau’s charge givento a reputable civilian, preferably a retired superiorcourt judge, especially in the light of the SupremeCourt ruling to this effect. At best, he could havebeen allowed to complete his tenure as NAB chief,after having retired from the army. There are otherexamples of serving officers retiring from the army,but completing their fixed tenure in civilian slots,the most recent being the previous WAPDA Chairman.Extension in service is by itself odious, impactingadversely down the line and affecting the careerprospects of deserving aspirants. The irony is thatsuccessive governments begin with vociferouscommitments of doing away with the practice, but endup finding excuses, mostly lack of suitablereplacements, to accommodate favourites. In this way,they ignore the well-known dictum, that the graveyardsare full of indispensable people. Whether it is thearmy or civilian bureaucracy, the principle ofretiring officials upon superannuation should bestrictly followed. The inroad of serving and retiredarmy men into civilian jobs is causing heartburningamong deserving civilian officials and constitutes amajor grouse of the people against army rule. Atpresent, there are perhaps, the largest number ofarmed forces personnel working in civilian assignmentsever in Pakistan’s history, giving the wrongimpression that the civilian bureaucracy is unfit tohandle those jobs. The situation needs to be quicklyremedied. After all, serving army officials should berequired to man the posts for which they have beengroomed. Otherwise, the claim of having introduceddemocracy would not be taken seriously, neither athome nor abroad. {5}ACROSS THE BOARD ‘ACCOUNTABILITY’:General Musharraf after 12 Oct 1999s’ mutiny had saidin his 7 points agenda that across the boardaccountability would start from this table and nobodywould be spare. Would he please define as to where hispromise has gone? He said Judiciary and Military hasbuilt in Accountability System so NAB has nojurisdiction there but every now and then news appearin the newspaper that Military Officials in NAB areblackmailing everybody for money who in any waybecomes ‘involve’ even through a anonymous complaints.If that was not enough Army Officers in NAB are sometime arrested with huge amount of money i.e. inBillions and they hushed up the whole matter. Thereare thousands of petition pending in several courts oflaw particularly in Sindh against allegedhighhandedness of Army Officials of NAB whileinvestigating cases of corruption but this so-calledNAB is silent on Mehran Bank, General Sabih QamarZaman {Pakistan Steel Mills Corruption Cases}, FaisalSaleh Hayat, Imtiaz Sheikh, Aftab Ahmed Sherpao andthousands of other cases. A minor example: {6}The Hyderabad bench of the Sindh High Court onThursday issued a notice to a lieutenant colonel on apetition filed by Zahoor Ahmad, accusing the armyofficer of harassment. Sindh Additional AdvocateGeneral Masood A. Noorani filed statements ofrespondent police officers, including the SHO of theMangli police station, Sanghar, denying harassing thepetitioner at the behest of the army officer. Thepolicemen further stated that the petitioner was notwanted in any case by the Mangli police. Thepetitioner stated that respondent Lt-Col MohammadAmeer had been using his official position to get adispute of civil nature settled which involved thelate father of the petitioner. He claimed that he hadmade payment to the army officer for fear of his life.DANGEROUS CONSEQUENCES FOR PAKISTAN:This is not intended as criticism of our soldiers whoare among the bravest and toughest in the world. Butthe leadership of our troops is in the hands of anofficer corps that is in danger of losing itsprofessional edge due to endless intervention incivilian matters far removed from their normal duties.Although General Musharraf and his colleagues haveassured us that only a small percentage of militarypersonnel are directly involved in civilian duties,the impression is one of vast numbers of serving andretired officers landing themselves plumb jobs. Lowerranks have to content themselves with checkingelectricity meters and driving licences. To say thenormal training cycle is not affected is to suggestthat it does not require much time and effort. Thequestion then arises as to what military personneldoes the whole year? Pakistan army's record is not exactly etched inletters of gold. From the fiasco of the 1948 Kashmirwar in which the initial advantage was squanderedthrough bad leadership to Kargil, the wars andskirmishes our army has fought have never yielded theresults we had hoped for when we initiated all thesehostilities. Although much valour was displayed bytroops and junior officers, they (and the nation) werelet down time and again by senior officers. Poorplanning, excessive caution and little communicationbetween the three services on the one hand, andcommand and field echelons on the other, havecharacterized our military operations to date. In the1965 and 1971 wars, both started by our military'smiscalculation of the Indian response to our actions,our units were largely static and where an offensivewas launched, it was ill-judged. Mostly, our generalswere content to hold on to defensive positions whilewaiting for international diplomacy to pull theirchestnuts out of the fire. An Israeli analysis of our army's performance in the1965 war was reproduced in the long-defunct Outlook inthe early seventies, and was devastating in itsconclusions. According to the authors, Pakistanenjoyed a sizable qualitative edge in US- suppliedhardware that was not exploited by generals andresorted to tactics that let the Indians off the hook.The Hamoodur Rehman commission report has beenscathing about the personal and professional conductof senior officers during the 1971 war. While in EastPakistan, units were surrounded by superior forces,the bulk of the army was in the West but provided nomeaningful resistance. But with generals like YahyaKhan in charge of the army and the nation's destiny,small wonder that the entire military was demoralized.Then we had the likes of Zia and Aslam Beg, the latterknown for his "doctrine of strategic defiance". Morerecently, this master strategist was quoted by OwenBennet Jones in his book "Pakistan: eye of the storm"as saying, in effect, that Pakistan did not need acommand and control system for its nuclear weapons asIndia was unlikely to attack our installations. Kargilwas a short-term tactical triumph but a strategicdisaster because its authors, General Musharraf amongthem, failed to grasp the global picture. They simplydid not anticipate the outrage an unprovoked attackwould arouse across the world when two nuclearprotagonists were involved. A good general is capableof thinking and planning in three dimensions severalmoves ahead, and so far, none of our military plannershave demonstrated this ability. Another problem ourdefence forces face is their heavy involvement inproperty and other business-related activities. Whenan officer is spending much of his time in expandinghis real estate portfolio, this is bound to tell onhis professionalism. And after a point, he hasacquired too much property to want to take risks.Although all these plots are lawfully acquired, surelythere should be a cut-off, limiting officers to one,or at most two, houses in their career. The fact thatan army officer (and his family) should considerthemselves to be above the law comes as no surprise:what is different today is how the public has reactedto this case. Newspapers and magazines have carriedcomments and criticism about the matter for weeks, andangry letters from readers continue to be published.If GHQ is in any way concerned over this widening gulfbetween the army and the people of Pakistan, the highcommand needs to reflect on the fact that when itsofficers are placed in charge of virtually everyinstitution, they will be blamed when things go wrong.A continuing problem with army-civilian relations hasbeen the arrogance military officers display whendealing with civilians. To all intents and purposes,they could be a colonial force lording their innatesuperiority over the backward natives. All armies areinsulated from civilian life to some extent, but ourofficers are also taught to despise politicians andbureaucrats as soon as they enter the militaryacademy. The reality of power in Pakistan is that thearmy has controlled the destiny of the nation for mostof its existence, and is likely to continue doing soin the foreseeable future. The invisible 'agencies'have huge, unaudited budgets and manipulate and malignpoliticians and control sections of the press.Incidentally, all this is a matter of public record:names of politicians and journalists who have receivedcash handouts from the exchequer have been publishedmany times without any action being taken againstthose making the payments and those receiving them.{7}

Hussain Bin Mansoor Al Hallaj.

NOTES:Unemployment mounting in Sindh By Sabihuddin Ghausi.{1}28 March 2005 Monday 17 Safar 1426 http://www.dawn.com/2005/03/28/ebr3.htmA Military State By Zahid Hussain. {2}http://www.newsline.com.pk/NewsOct2004/cover1oct2004.htmThe Pakistan Army Confuses its Own Interest withCountry's National Interest John Lancaster {Washington Post}. {3}http://www.satribune.com/archives/dec02_08_02/opinion_wpostarticle.htmArmed forces exceed 10pc quota in Cabinet Div. By OurStaff Reporter {4}22 March 2005 Tuesday 11 Safar 1426 http://www.dawn.com/2005/03/22/nat11.htmThis List is being constantly Updated as newinformation becomes available The Partial List ofCivilian Posts taken over by Army Officials SpecialSAT Report {4}http://www.satribune.com/archives/sep23_29_02/P1_armylist.htm1,027 civilian posts occupied by servicemen By NasirIqbal {4}03 October 2003 Fridayhttp://www.dawn.com/2003/10/03/nat9.htm QUESTIONABLE EXTENSION {5}http://nation.com.pk/daily/oct-2004/11/editorials3.phpA Minor Example.HYDERABAD: Court issues notice to army officer By OurCorrespondent {6}http://www.dawn.com/2005/03/18/local22.htmCenturions and legionnaires By Irfan Husain {7}http://www.dawn.com/weekly/mazdak/20040403.htmWhose land is it, anyway? By Irfan Husain {7}http://www.dawn.com/weekly/mazdak/20020914.htmThe growing divide By Irfan Husain {7} http://www.dawn.com/weekly/mazdak/20031220.htmLooking ahead, darkly By Irfan Husain {7}http://www.dawn.com/weekly/mazdak/20030104.htm

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